[置顶] 六级阅读:“两遍阅读法”获取高分

[不指定 07/09/18 14:37 | by admin ]
 一、重新审视大纲要求

  要求考生阅读若干篇短文。每篇短文后有若干个问题。考生应根据文章内容得出最佳答案。
  选材原册
  1、题材广泛,可以包括人物传记、社会、文化等方面,但是所涉及的背景知识应能为学生所理解;
  2、体裁多样,可以包括说明文、议论文等;
  评析:
  在备考中,应该练习多题材的文章,包括生活话题、经济类话题、环境话题,以及还有热点话题等,熟悉各种题材的文章结构和作者的表述,特别要关注议论文的结构模式,把握议论文的逻辑顺序。
  阅读理解部分主要测试下述能力
  A.辨别和理解中心思想和重要细节
  1、理解明确表达的概念和细节、文章的总体结构以及句子和段落的关系 评析:细节题的考查方向
  2、理解隐含的表达意思(如判断、推理和总结等)评析:推论题的考查方向
  3、理解所读材料的主旨和大意(如找出能概括全文的要点等)评析:主旨题的考查方向
  4、理解作者的观点和态度 评析:态度题的考查方向
  5、理解词语(如根据上下文猜测词和短语的意思)、句间关系(如原因、结果、目的等)
  评析:猜词题的考查方向

  二、阅读过程四步走

  1、扫描题干,划出关键词。选项不要看,用时越短越好。
  2、通读全文,抓住中心。
  3、仔细审题,返回原文。关键:定位。
  定位的三大原则:
  (1)关键词定位原则:由题干出发,寻找题干中的关键词,首选大写字母、数字等,其次是表时间地点人物的词。
  (2)自然段定位原则:出题顺序与文章段落顺序大体一致。
  (3)出题点定位原则:答案一定蕴涵在有特殊标点符号、句式列举、强转折逻辑关系的地方。
  4、重叠选项,斟酌答案。
  (1)缩小范围的是答案。
  (2)扩大范围的不是答案。
  (3)原文和选项有交叉内容的不是答案。
  (4)不相关的不能选。即,只要选项中有文章中未出现内容就错。注意,将文章中的每一个选项带回文章一一查对,不要凭印象猜测。

  三、根据考纲解题型

  (一)五大解题思路

  题型一——细节题
  1、标志:针对6w1h提问
  2、作题的关键在于返回原文,不要凭印象作题,返回原文要有定位意识。
  3、细节题迷惑选项的常用手段:偷换概念、扩大范围、正反混淆、颠倒因果、常识判断(列举和文章无关的常识,尽管常识是对的,但文章中未提,也是错的)

  题型二——猜词题

  形式一:词汇题
  1、标志:在题干中明确指出原文的单词或词组,要求辨其意。
  2、关键:该单词认识与否并不重要,重要的是该单词的上下文。
  3、做题方法:在文章中寻找同义词词组;代入替换法。
  形式二:指代题
  1、标志:在题干中明确指出原文中某个代词,要求辨别其指代关系,即it, that, one
  2、做题方法:(1)首先返回原文定位此指代词,90%向上,10%向下,搜索其指代的词、词组或句子。(2)在四个选项中找出一个同意表达作为答案。

  形式三:句子理解题

  1、标志:在题干中明确指出原文中的某句话,要求理解其意思。
  2、关键:返回原文,对出题句进行语法、句法、词法的分析,精确了解其含义。
  3、注意:重要的不是上下文,而是该句本身。正确答案与原文是同义关系,与原文其他无关联,选项一般无绝对的判断,有绝对判断的则必错。

  题型三——推论题

  1、标志:infer imply
  2、整体思路:每个选项都列举了文章的一个事实(或错误事实),我们要找的是哪一个符合原文。
  3、如果四个选项之中都没明确提到,那么与原文意思最接近,所用推理步骤最少的就是正确答案。
  4. 尤其要重视话中有话的陈述句或比喻句或反语或长难句,这些地方一般是分散列举题出题所在。

 
  题型四——态度题

   1、标志:attitude
   2、作者态度只分三类(1)支持,赞同,乐观(2)客观,中立(3)反对,批评,怀疑,悲观。除此之外没有其他作者态度。有些选项一定不是答案indifferent, subjective(主观), biased, puzzling等
   3、识别作者态度有以下方法;(1)依据中心句推论(2)当作者态度未明确提出时,要找文章中带有褒贬意义的词(3)根据所举例子的正负来判断,只提一方,则不中立;两方均提,不管例子有多少,是否平衡,都中立。
   题型五——主旨题
   1、标志:best title, main idea, main problem, conclusion, best title, the writing purpose。
   2、方法:(1)要着重理解首末段,首末句(2)若主旨在文章中间出现或前后段意转折时,应提高警惕(3)若段中出现转折时,该转折句很可能就是主题句 (4)作者有意识重复的观点往往是主旨(5)首段出现疑问句时,对该疑问的解答就是主旨(6)主旨出现时常伴有如下词:but, however, therefore, in short
   3、选项特点:(1)正确选项一般不含细节信息,并不含过分肯定或绝对意义的词(2)错误选项的特点是就事论事,或细节信息鲜明,或过于笼统。

   (二)微观阅读助理解

   微观阅读之一——标点的运用

   冒号:前后是从抽象到具体的过程,如把冒号前的看懂,则后面的不看。
   分号:分号前后是并列关系,只看其中一句即可。
   破折号:破折号之后是补充说明成分时跳过不读。
   引号:引号有三个作用,引语,反语,强调。知道观点则引语不看,反语反看。
   括号:括号有两个作用,补充说明,解释说明生词。

   微观阅读之二——长难句的解析

   1、从句又多又长,一主带多从。应对方法:先抓主干,找出长难句中最核心的主谓宾,再层层扩展,理解。
   2、主句或从句中带有长长的插入成分。应对方法:读句子时先找主干,不要理会插入语。如果插入语交代说话人身份或某话是谁说的,或修饰、解释、补充前面所言,跳过不看。
   3、分词状语或独立主格的干扰。应对方法:主句最重要的特征是有完整的主谓宾结构,有独立的谓语。一个看似句子的结构,如果没有独立的谓语,那它不是句子,而是分词状语或独立主格。
   4、有时上面三种情况混合。应对方法:从前向后,先找独立的谓语部分,从而区分出主语和分词状语,再根据从句的连词(because, as, when)区分出主句和从句,然后层层扩展理解,插入语在哪个层次就放在哪个层次理解,甚至跳过不看。
   5、从语法上看常见长难句语法结构:形式主语或宾语,强调结构,非限制性定语从句,同位语从句,倒装结构,虚拟语气省略句。
       首先,现在考试中的阅读量越来越大,寻读的目的主要能在最短的时间找到想要的内容,是有目标地去找出文中某些特定的信息,也就是说,在对文章有所了解(即略读)后,在文章中查找与某一问题、某一观点或某一单词有关的信息,寻找解题的可靠依据。寻读时,要以很快的速度扫视文章,确定所查询的信息范围。值得庆幸的是,在四级快速阅读的测试文章中,已经有了明确的小标题,这就能够帮助我们很快地锁定解题范围。同时,还应该注意题目中体现出的所查信息的特点。

     如:问题或填空的句子中涉及到人名、地名,则主要寻找首字母大写的单词;有关日期、数目的问题,则主要查找具体数字;有关某个事件、某种观点等,就需要寻找与此相关的关键词,而与所查信息无关的内容可一掠而过。

  如样题第6题:In the United States the building of landfills is the job of both federal and local governments.

  在判断时,一些特殊的用词,“United States”,“building of landfills”都提示我们顺利找到原文的“In the United States, taking care of trash and building landfills are local government responsibilities.”来判断正误。

  随后的第9题:To dispose of a ton of trash in a landfill, customers have to pay a tipping fee of . 则可以通过“customers”、“ tipping fee”找到原文“Customers are charged tipping fees for using the site. The tipping fees vary from $10 to $40 per ton.”来填写空格。

  总的来说,从最新的样题来看,快速阅读理解部分由于其篇幅长,题目灵活,会让考生感觉无从下手。但是,对于该题型我们有一个清晰的概念,那就是快速阅读测试的重点就是考生在短时间内获取篇章主旨和特定信息的能力,因此,它更强调了正确的阅读方法和技巧的贯彻。只要我们掌握一定的方法,培养好的阅读习惯,还是很容易在一段时间内取得满意的成绩。

  寻读的目的主要是有目标地去找出文中某些特定的信息,也就是说,在对文章有所了解(即略读)后,在文章中查找与某一问题、某一观点或某一单词有关的信息,寻找解题的可靠依据。寻读时,要以很快的速度扫视文章,确定所查询的信息范围。值得庆幸的是,在四级快速阅读的测试文章中,已经有了明确的小标题,这就能够帮助我们很快地锁定解题范围。同时,还应该注意题目中体现出的所查信息的特点。如:问题或填空的句子中涉及到人名、地名,则主要寻找首字母大写的单词;有关日期、数目的问题,则主要查找具体数字;有关某个事件、某种观点等,就需要寻找与此相关的关键词,而与所查信息无关的内容可一掠而过。
  如样题第6题:In the United States the building of landfills is the job of both federal and local governments.

  在判断时,一些特殊的用词,“United States”,“building of landfills”都提示我们顺利找到原文的“In the United States, taking care of trash and building landfills are local government responsibilities.”来判断正误。

  随后的第9题:To dispose of a ton of trash in a landfill, customers have to pay a tipping fee of . 则可以通过“customers”、“ tipping fee”找到原文“Customers are charged tipping fees for using the site. The tipping fees vary from $10 to $40 per ton.”来填写空格。

  总的来说,从最新的样题来看,快速阅读理解部分由于其篇幅长,题目灵活,会让考生感觉无从下手。但是,对于该题型我们有一个清晰的概念,那就是快速阅读测试的重点就是考生在短时间内获取篇章主旨和特定信息的能力,因此,它更强调了正确的阅读方法和技巧的贯彻。只要我们掌握一定的方法,培养好的阅读习惯,还是很容易在一段时间内取得满意的成绩。



  The "standard of living" of any country means the average person's share of the goods and services which the country produces. A country's standard of living, therefore, depends first and foremost on its capacity to produce wealth. "Wealth" in this sense is not money, for we do not live on money but on things that money can buy: "goods" such as food and clothing, and "services" such as transport and entertainment.
  A country's capacity to produce wealth depends upon many factors, most of which have an effect on one another. Wealth depends to a great extent upon a country's natural resources, such as coal, gold, and other minerals, water supply and so on. Some regions of the world are well supplied with coal and minerals, and have a fertile soil and a favorable climate; other regions possess perhaps only one of these things, and some regions possess none of them. The U. S. A is one of the wealthiest regions of the world because she has vast natural resources within her borders, her soil is fertile, and her climate is varied. The Sahara Desert, on the other hand, is one of the least wealthy.
  Next to natural resources comes the ability to turn them to use. China is perhaps as well off as the U. S. A. in natural resources, but suffered for many years from civil and external wars, and for this and other reasons was. unable to develop her resources. Sound and stable political conditions, and freedom from foreign invasion, enable a country to develop its natural resources peacefully and steadily, and to produce more wealth than another country equally well served by nature but less well ordered. Another important factor is the technical efficiency of a country's people. Old countries that have, through many centuries, trained up numerous skilled craftsmen and technicians are better placed to produce wealth than countries whose workers are largely unskilled. Wealth also produces wealth. As a country becomes wealthier, its people have a large margin for saving, and can put their savings into factories and machines which will help workers to turn out more goods in their working day.

  1. A country's wealth depends upon______. ,
  A. its standard of living
  B. its money
  C. its ability to provide goods and services
  D. its ability to provide transport and entertainment
  2. The word "foremost" means______.
  A. most importantly B. firstly
  C. largely D. for the most part
  3. The main idea of the second paragraph is that______.
  A. a country's wealth depends on many factors
  B. the U. S. A. is one of the wealthiest countries in the world
  C. the Sahara Desert is a very poor region
  D. natural resources are an important factor in the wealth or poverty of a country
  4. The third paragraph mentions some of the advantages which one country may have over another in making use of its resources. How many such advantages are mentioned in this paragraph?
  A. 2  B. 3
  C. 4  D. 5
  5. The second sentence.in Paragraph 3 is______.
  A. the main idea of the paragraph
  B. an example supporting the main idea of the paragraph
  C. the conclusion of the paragraph
  D. not related to the paragraph


【答案见下页】
  The productivity of Americans employed in private businesses has declined. The productivity of workers in countries such as Japan and Germany is increasing. American machine tools, on average, are old, relatively inefficient, and rapidly becoming obsolete, whereas those of our competitors overseas, in comparison, are newer and more efficient. We are no longer the most productive workers in the world. We are no longer the leaders in industrial innovation (革新). We are an immensely

  wealthy nation of educated men and women who seem to have lost sight of the fact that everything—from the simplest necessities to the finest luxuries—must be produced through our own collective hard work. We have come to expect automatic increases in our collective standard of living, but we seem to have forgotten that these increases are possible only when our productivity continues to grow.

  One thing that must change is the rate at which we substitute capital equipment for human labor. Simply put, our labor force has increased at a far greater rate than has our stock of capital investment. We seem to have forgotten that our past productivity gains, to a large extent, were realized from substitutions of capital for human labor. Today, 3 times as many robots are listed as capital assets by Japanese firms as by United States firms.

  There is no doubt that robots will become a common sight in American factories. Representing a new generation of technology, robots will replace factory labor much as the farm tractor replaced the horse. Robot technology has much to offer. It offers higher levels of productivity and quality at lower costs; in promises to free men and women from the dull, repetitious toil of the factory, it is likely to have an impact on society comparable to that made by the growth of computer technology.

  1. The word "obsolete"(Para. 1) most probably means_______.
  A. weak B. old
  C. new D. out of date
  2. The author is anxious about_______.
  A. his people no longer taking the lead in industrial innovation
  B. his country no longer being a wealthy nation
  C. his people forgetting to raise their productivity
  D. his country falling behind other industrial nations
  3. According to the author, in his country_______..
  A. the proportion of labor force to capital investment is quite low
  B. the growth rate of labor force should be greater than that of capital investment
  C. the productivity increases should be achieved by the increases of labor force
  D. capital investment should have increased more rapidly than labor force
  4. So far as the influence on society is concerned, _______.
  A. robot technology seems to be much more promising than computer technology
  B. computer technology has less to offer than robot technology
  C. robot technology can be compared with computer technology
  D. robot technology cannot be compared with computer technology
  5. The purpose of the author in writing this passage is to show that_______.
  A. robots will help increase labor productivity
  B. robots will rule American factories
  C. robots are cheaper than human laborers
  D. robots will finally replace humans in factories

【答案见下页】
分页: 1/11 第一页 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 下页 最后页 [ 显示模式: 摘要 | 列表 ]