When you start talking about good and bad manners

  you immediately start meeting difficulties. Many people just

  cannot agree what they mean. We asked a lady, who replied that she

  thought you could tell a well-mannered person on the way they (71)

  occupied the space around them—for example, when such a

  person walks down a street he or she is constantly unaware of (72)

  others. Such people never bump into other people.

  However, a second person thought that this was more a

  question of civilized behavior as good manners. Instead, this (73)

  other person told us a story, it he said was quite well known, (74)

  about an American who had been invited to an Arab meal at (75)

  one of the countries of the Middle East. The American hasn’t (76)

  been told very much about the kind of food he might expect. If

  he had known about American food, he might have behaved (77)


  Immediately before him was a very flat piece of bread that

  looked, to him, very much as a napkin (餐巾) Picking it (78)

  up, he put it into his collar, so that it falls across his shirt. (79)

  His Arab host, who had been watching, said of nothing, but (80)

  immediately copied the action of his guest.

  And that, said this second person, was a fine example of good manners.


  We are all naturally attracted to people with ideas,

  beliefs and interests like our own. Similarly, we feel comfortable

  with people with physical qualities similar as ours. (71)

  You may have noticed about how people who live or work (72)

  closely together come to behave in a similar way. Unconsciously we

  copy these we are close to or love or admire. So a sportsman’s (73)

        individual way of walking with raised shoulders is imitated by an admired (74)

  fan; a pair of lovers both shake their heads in the same way; an

  employer finds himself duplicating his boss’s habit of wagging (摆动) (75)

  a pen between his fingers while thinking.

  In every case, the influential person may consciously notice the (76)

  imitation but he will feel comfortably in its presence. And if he does (77)

  notice the matching of his gestures or movements, he finds it pleasing

  he is influencing people; they are drawn to them. (78)

  Sensitive people have been mirroring their friend and acquaintances (79)

  all their lives, and winning affection and respect in this way

  without aware of their methods. Now, for people who want to win (80)

  agreement or trust, affection or sympathy, some psychologists recommend

  the deliberate use of physical imitation.


  A great many cities are experiencing difficulties which are

  nothing new in the history of cities, except in their scale.

  Some cities have lost their original purpose and have not found

  new one. And any large or rich city is going to attract poor (S1)

  immigrants, who flood in, filling with hopes of prosperity (S2)

  which are then often disappointing. There are backward towns

  on the edge of Bombay or Brasilia, just as though there were (S3)

  on the edge of seventeenth-century London or early

  nineteenth century Paris. This is new is in the scale. Descriptions (S4)

  written by eighteenth-century travelers of the poor of Mexico

  City, and the enormous contrasts that was to be found there, (S5)

  are very dissimilar to descriptions of Mexico City today—the (S6)

  poor can still be numbered in millions.

  The whole monstrous growth rests on economic

  prosperity, but behind it lies two myths: the myth of the city as a (S7)

  promised land, that attracts immigrants from rural poverty (S8)

  and brings it flooding into city centers, and the myth of the (S9)

  country as a Garden of Eden, which, a few generations late, (S10)

  sends them flooding out again to the suburbs.


  The Seattle Times Company is one newspaper firm that

  has recognized the need for change and done something about it.

  In the newspaper industry, papers must reflect the diversity of

  the communities to which they provide information.

  It must reflect that diversity with their news coverage or risk (S1)

  losing their readers’ interest and their advertisers’ support.

  Operating within Seattle, which has 20 percents racial (S2)

  minorities, the paper has put into place policies and

  procedures for hiring and maintain a diverse workforce. The (S3)

  underlying reason for the change is that for information to be

  fair, appropriate, and subjective, it should be reported by the (S4)

  same kind of population that reads it.

  A diversity committee composed of reporters, editors, and

  photographers meets regularly to value the Seattle Times’ (S5)

  content and to educate the rest of the newsroom staff about

  diversity issues. In an addition, the paper instituted a content (S6)

  audit (审查) that evaluates the frequency and manner of

  representation of woman and people of color in photographs. (S7)

  Early audits showed that minorities were pictured

  far too infrequently and were pictured with a disproportion

  ate number of negative articles. The audit results from (S8)

  improvement in the frequency of majority representation and (S9)

  their portrayal in neutral or positive situations. And, with a (S10)

  result, the Seattle Times has improved as a newspaper.

  The diversity training and content audits helped the Seattle Times Company

  to win the Personnel Journal Optimal Award for excellence in managing change.


  Thomas Malthus published his “Essay on the

  Principle of Population” almost 200 years ago. Ever since then,

  forecasters have being warning that worldwide famine was (S1)

  just around the next corner. The fast-growing population’s

  demand for food, they warned, would soon exceed their (S2)

  supply, leading to widespread food shortages and starvation.

  But in reality, the world’s total grain harvest has risen

  steadily over the years. Except for relative isolated trouble (S3)

  spots like present-day Somalia, and occasional years of

  good harvests, the world’s food crisis has remained just (S4)

  around the corner. Most experts believe this can continue

  even as if the population doubles by the mid-21st century, (S5)

  although feeding 10 billion people will not be easy for

  politics, economic and environmental reasons. Optimists (S6)

  point to concrete examples of continued improvements

  in yield. In Africa, by instance, improved seed, more (S7)

  fertilizer and advanced growing practices have more than

  double corn and wheat yields in an experiment. Elsewhere, (S8)

  rice experts in the Philippines are producing a plant with few (S9)

  stems and more seeds. There is no guarantee that plant

  breeders can continue to develop new, higher-yielding

  crop, but most researchers see their success to date as reason (S10)

  for hope.


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