一个公式

  我们都知道英语与汉语在表达顺序上存在很大的差异,因此,这里我们先引出一个英语表达顺序的公式来。请记住:英语的表达语序基本上遵循以下这个顺序:
6-1-2-3-4-5-6
6(when)—1(who)—2(what)—3(whom)—4(how)—5(where)—6(when)
说明:6的位置很灵活,可以放前,也可以放后。
示例:
I ate an apple.
I ate an apple with a fork.
I ate an apple with a fork in the kitchen.
I ate an apple with a fork in the kitchen this morning.
以上四个句子从1-2-3模式一直到1-2-3-4-5-6模式,请大家逐个翻译一下,仔细对比英语顺序与汉语顺序的差异。
结论:英语和汉语在表达的最核心内容上是一致的:即一个句子的1-2-3是相同的;但是,在有了4-5-6后,汉语表达方式与英语这个自然表达顺序产生了巨大的词序差异:
汉语次信息先出现;英语主信息先出现
再如:
我喜欢那个女孩子
我喜欢那个穿红衣服的女孩子
我喜欢那个穿红衣服的不喜欢我的女孩子
这三个句子的核心内容都是:I like that girl.(与:“我喜欢那个女孩子”词序一致,但是,在添加了其它部分后,表达顺序全变样了!)
再如:
我打死一只苍蝇
我用手打死一只苍蝇
我用手打了三次打死一只苍蝇
我用手打了三次并在我助理的帮助下打死了一只苍蝇

这四个句子的核心内容都是:I killed a fly.(与“我打死一只苍蝇”词序一致,但是,在添加了其它部分后,表达顺序全变样了!)

逗号原则

在一个句子的前面如果有内容,那么,请记住:
1.不到3个单词时,可以用逗号与后面句子分隔开来,也可以不用逗号分隔,具体情况根据说话人自己确定的停顿语气长短来确定。
示例1:At last he stopped playing the piano.
示例2:Sadly he picked up the broken glass and went into the room.
2.达到或超过3个单词时,必须用逗号与后面句子分隔开来。
示例1:In the end, I could not bear it.
示例2:To my surprise, he bought me a ticket!
1个句子1个main verb(即:2)原则
理论上讲:一个句子只应该有一个为主的动词(即2)。
但是,实际运用的过程中,我们会发现一个句子中有多个动词,此时就需要:
标记清楚这些动词彼此间的逻辑关系!!!
这里的逻辑关系有两种情况:
1.并列(即:将这些动词视为地位相同;一般方式为使用and连接)
2.从属(即:牺牲某个或某些动词,将其处理成符合从属关系的方式,从而确保为主的动词;一般方式为使用动词三大非谓语形式:动词的ing形式、动词的过去分词形式、动词的不定式形式)
1.并列关系示例
示例1:I sat down beside her said nothing.
分析:sat与said之间没有标记逻辑关系,错误!可以添加and,形成并列关系,即:
I sat down beside her and said nothing.

示例2:I entered the room saw mother sit there wait for me come back.
分析:这里有5个动词,都没有标记逻辑关系,错误!通过分析,我们看到:entered和saw可以并列,因为它们拥有共同的1(I);sit和wait可以并列,因为它们拥有共同的1(mother),但这两组动词之间就不能再并列了,因为无法这么做。这就意味着:这句话里的动词有的可以并列,而有的不可以。
示例3:I opened the bag took out some paper and a pen, sat down started take notes.
分析:opened,took out,sat down,started这四个动词拥有共同的1(I),而且都是1直接行使或发出的动作,所以,可以采取并列关系;但take因为有个过渡层,因此并列处理不合适。

2.从属关系示例
示例1:I sat down beside her said nothing.
分析:动词关系混乱,假如想确保said,则需要牺牲后面,如:
I sat down beside her, saying nothing.
假如确保后面,则牺牲前面:
Sitting down beside her, I said nothing.
示例2:To quit smoking, I eat candies.
一个句子一个句号原则
理论上讲,一个句子一个句号,但是,实际中会有几个甚至多个句子摆放在一起共享一个句号。此时应该怎么办呢?
答案很简单:标记清楚这些句子间的逻辑关系。有两种:
1.并列关系示例
示例1:I sat down beside her. I said nothing.
变为:I sat down beside her and I said nothing.
示例2:He asked me a question. I answered him.
变为:He asked me a question and I answered him.

2.从属关系

1)运用各类从句,形成主从符合句,包括:
状语从句
宾语从句
定语从句
主语从句
同位语从句
2)运用非谓语动词类进行从属方式的处理,包括:
动词的ing形式
动词的过去分词形式
动词不定式形式
从属关系示例(以状语从句为例)
示例1:When he asked me a question, I answered him.
示例2:I was so angry that I beat him up!
示例3:If you ask me ‘why’, I will answer ‘because’!
示例4:Since you are not feeling well, just lie down and take a good rest.
示例5:Although I have tried my best, I can’t win her heart.
示例6:Wherever I am, I will be thinking of you.
示例7:I went out very early in the morning so that I could avoid the rush hour traffic.

非谓语动词方式处理示例

示例1:I sat beside her. I felt very nervous.
可变为:Sitting beside her, I felt very nervous.
或者:I sat beside her, feeling very nervous.
示例2:I want to quit smoking. I eat candies.
可变为:To quit smoking, I eat candies.
示例3:A young man was tired of sleeping on the floor. He saved up for years to buy a real bed.
可以变为:Tired of sleeping on the floor, a young man saved up for years to buy a real bed.
示例4:Jimmy was dressed up as Father Christmas. He was accompanied by a guard of honor of six pretty girls. He set off down the main street of the city. He rode a baby elephant. The elephant was called Jumbo.
可以变为:Dressed up as Father Christmas and accompanied by a guard of honor of six pretty girls, Jimmy set off down the main street of the city, riding a baby elephant called Jumbo.

定语从句方式处理

定语从句当然是属于“从属”的行列,所以,是处理为从属方式的手段之一。请看下面的例子:
This is the only book.
I read the book during the holiday.
两句的重合点在the book上面;将第二句中的the book抽出来,放到第一句book后面,其它内容向后甩。这样,我们就会看到the only book后面马上又在重复the book。为了避免重复,我们去掉the book,而换用另外一个词去替换,这个词就是指物的which或that。因为这里的book有only在修饰,所以,最终我们选用that;又因为that在定语从句中作宾语,所以,可以省略。
下面两句的合并遵循同样的原则:
She is the girl.
The girl’s father is my boss.
She is the girl whose father is my boss.

几个句型:
…, but…句型(表转折关系)
…, for…句型(表原因关系)
…, so…句型(表结果关系)
…(,/;/.) however,…句型(表更强烈的转折关系)
…(,/;/.) therefore,…句型(更强烈的结果关系)
…(,/;/.) meanwhile,…句型(表时间关系)
…(,/;/.) consequently,…句型(表结果关系)
…(,/;/.) admittedly,…句型(表让步关系)
这些基本知识构成了:
1)简单句扩展到复杂句
2)复杂句拆分为简单句
由“分到合”,由“合到分”的“基石”。
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