We all know that the normal human daily cycle of activity is of some 7-8 hours’ sleep alternation with some 16-17 hours’wakefulness and that, broadly speaking, the sleep normally coincides with the hours of darkness. Our present concern is with how easily and to what extent this cycle can be modified.
  The question is no mere academic one. The ease, for example, with which people can change from working in the day to working at night is a question of growing importance in industry where automation calls for round-the-clock working of machines. It normally takes from five days to one week for a person to adapt to a reversed routine of sleep and wakefulness, sleeping during the day and working at night. Unfortunately, it is often the case in industry that shifts are changed every week; a person may work from 12:00 midnight to 8:00 a.m. one week, 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. the next, and 4:00p.m. to 12:00 midnight the third and so on. This means that no sooner has he got used to one routine than he has to change to another, so that much of his time is spent neither working nor sleeping very efficiently.
  The only real solution appears to be to hand over the night shift to a number of permanent night workers. An interesting study of the domestic life and health of night-shift workers was carried out by Brown in 1957. She found a high incidence of disturbed sleep and other disorders among those on alternating day and night shifts, but no abnormal occurrence of these phenomena among those on permanent night work.
  This latter system then appears to be the best long-term policy, but meanwhile something may be done to relieve the strains of alternate day and night work by selecting those people who can adapt most quickly to the changes of routine. One way of knowing when a person has adapted is by measuring his body temperature. People engaged in normal daytime work will have a high temperature during the hours of wakefulness and a low one at night; when they change to night work, the pattern will only gradually go back to match the new routine and the speed with which it does so parallels, broadly speaking, the adaptation of the body as a whole, particularly in terms of performance. Therefore, by taking body temperature at intervals of two hours throughout the period of wakefulness it can be seen how quickly a person can adapt to a reversed routine, and this could be used as a basis for selection. So far, however, such a form of selection does not seem to have been applied in practice. (445 words)
引用
  1. The main problem of the round-the-clock working system lies in _______.
  A. the disturbance of the daily cycle of workers who have to change shifts too frequently
  B. the inconveniences brought about to the workers by the introduction of automation
  C. the fact that people working at night are often less effective
  D. the fact that it is difficult to find a number of good night workers
  2. The best solution to implementing the 24-hour working system seems ________.
  A. to employ people who work on night shifts only
  B. to create better living conditions for night workers
  C. to change shifts at longer intervals
  D. to have longer shifts
  3. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
  A. Body temperature may serve as an indication of a worker’s performance.
  B. The employment of permanent night shift workers seems to be the best solution to problems of the round-the-clock working system.
  C. Taking body temperature at regular intervals can show how a person adapts to the changes of routine.
  D. Disturbed sleep occurs more frequently among shift workers.
  4. It is possible to find out if a person has adapted to the changes of routine by measuring his body temperature because ________.
  A. body temperature changes when the cycle of sleep and wakefulness alternates
  B. body temperature changes when he changes to night shift or back
  C. the temperature reverses when the routine is changed.
  D. people have higher temperature when they are working efficiently.
  5. The phrase “coincide with”(Line 3, Para.1) could best be replaced by _______.
  A. take place
  B. agree with
  C. accord to
  D. take up
引用
  [答案]
    1. B 推理引申题。第二段中提到人适应新习惯需要五天到一个礼拜的时间,但事实是工人的正常生活节奏经常处于被扰乱的状态,使工作和睡眠效率不佳。所以,正确考试*大答案为B。
  2. A 事实细节题。根据第三段第一句“The only real solution appears…night workers”
  3. A 事实细节题。最后一段提到“…by taking body temperature…can be seen how quickly a person can adapt to a reversed routine”。
  4. C 推理引申题。最后一段指出体温与人处于醒着的状态还是睡眠状态的关系,只有C与原文相符。
  5. B 词意猜测题。意思是“与……一致”。
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