一、 语言因素在听力中的运用  

听力理解可分为字面理解和深层理解。要做到字面理解,就必须具备一定的语音知识、一定的词汇知识和一定的语法知识。也只有在理解字面意思的基础上才有可能对听力材料进行深层次的理解,所以语言因素是听力理解的基础。我们常提到的语言因素包括:

1、语音知识
  
听力不同于阅读,要求同学们必须具备准确辨音的能力,这是口头交际的基础。在正确掌握每个单词的发音的同时,必须注意以下几个方面:  
(1)Q: What is the womans comment on the mans paper? (1996.1)  
A. The ideas of the paper are not convincing.  
B. Some parts of the paper are not well written.  
C. The handwriting of the paper is not good.  
D. The paper is not complete.  
本题考查的是同学们对虚拟语气句子的理解,答案是B。)英语中最小对立体的发音,如ship---sheep, cheap ----  
chip, pig ---peg, sack ---sock等,有针对性地进行发音训练,比如绕口令之类的练习,如She sells sea cells by the  
seashore. If she sells sea cells by the seashore, then she  
sells seashore cells,适当加强一些针对性的听力练习。  

(2)重读与弱读:
   汉语是一个汉字一个音节,而英语中的一个单词可能就有好多音节,这就造成了英汉节奏的差别。而英语中的一些虚词一般要弱读,这有可能会给听力造成一定的困难。对此也应该进行专项训练。如:  
Whats the time? Sing us a song. Ive eaten them all. He  
has already visited a great number of different places in  
Australia.(红体部分的音节重读)  

(3)连读:连读时语速加快,连读的单词之间没有了间隔,会给理解带来困难。
如:  in ˇor ˇout, yearˇ in and year ˇout, for ˇan ˇhour  

(4)意群:
   听力时不能一个单词一个单词地去理解,应该注意意群,因为意群之间间隔之处正是停顿之处,注意下列语句朗读时停顿的差别:  
John said, " My father is here."  
"John," said my father, "is here."  
She likes pineapples.  
She likes pie and apples.  
He sold his houseboat and trailer.  
He sold his house, boat, and trailer.  

(5)注意同音字:有些单词发音相同,也可能给听力理解带来困难。
如:  What is black and white, and read (red) all over?  
这里在听的时候,很难分请是read还是red。  

(6)语调:
  语调是说话者表达情感的一种手段,同样一个句子如果语调不同,则意思就有可能发生变化,如:  
Open the door, will you?↗  
Open the door, wont you?↘  
用声调表示一种请求,用降调表示命令。  
What? ↗What?↘↗升调表示疑问,降升表示吃惊和不相信。  
测试中同样有可能考查语调的作用,如:  
① W: Where do you want to eat?  
M: Is there anything wrong with the↘ coffee shop?  
Q: What does the man mean?  
A. He wonders if anything happened at the coffee shop.  
B. He doesnt know why the coffee tastes bad.  
C. He only wants coffee because he isnt happy.  
D. He thinks that they ought to go to the coffee shop.  
一般疑问句,却用了降调,表示出说话者愿意去咖啡馆的肯定态度,答案应是D。  
② M: Im terribly sorry Im late, but I just couldnt  
help it.  
I got there as soon as I could.  
W: Well, its not soon enough, ↘is it?  
Q: What does the woman mean?  
A. Its soon enough to get here.  
B. Its not soon enough to get here.  
C. Its not late to get here.  
D. Its early enough to get here.  
降调的使用,说明说话人坚信第一部分说的是事实,由此可以判断答案为B。

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