[quote]Passage Two

Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.

The tendency to look for some outside group to blame for our misfortunes is certainly common and it is often sustained by social prejudice. There seems to be little doubt that one of the principal causes of prejudice is fear: in particular the fear that the interests of our own group are going to be endangered by the actions of another. This is less likely to be the case in a stable, relatively unchanging society in which the members of different social and occupational groups know what to expect of each other, and know what to expect for themselves. In times of rapid racial and economic change, however, new occupations and new social roles appear, and people start looking jealously at each other to see whether their own group is being left behind.

Once prejudice develops, it is hard to stop, because there are often social forces at work which actively encourage unfounded attitudes of hostility and fear towards other groups. One such force is education: We all know that children can be taught history in such a way as to perpetuate old hatred and old prejudices between racial and political groups. Another social influence that has to be reckoned with is the pressure of public opinion. People often think and act differently in groups from the way they would do as individuals. It takes a considerable effort of will, and often calls for great courage, to stand out against one’s fellows and insist that they are wrong.

Why is it that we hear so much more about the failures of relationships between communities than we do about the successes? I am afraid it is partly due to the increase in communication which radio, television and the popular press have brought about. In those countries where the media of mass communication are commercial enterprises, they tend to measure success by the size of their audience; and people are more likely to buy a newspaper, for instance, if their attention is caught by something dramatic, something sensational, or something that arouses their anxiety. The popular press flourishes on “scare headlines”, and popular orators, especially if they are politicians addressing a relatively unsophisticated audience, know that the best way to arouse such an audience is to frighten them.

Where there is a real or imaginary threat to economic security, this is especially likely to inflame group prejudice. It is important to remember economic factors if we wish to lessen prejudice between groups, because unless they are dealt with directly it will be little use simply advising people not to be prejudiced against other groups whom they see as their rivals, if not their enemies.

57. Which of the following does the author see as the chief source of prejudice?

A) The distorted ideas which are believed as statement of fact.

B) Fear that personal interest will be invaded.

C) The dispute which is favorable to the opponents not one's own part.

D) The concepts that a community takes for granted.

58. What part do newspapers and radio play in inter-communal relationships?

A) They educate people not to look jealously at each other

B) They cause further prejudice among audience.

C) They discuss interesting problems in more details

D) They draw the audience's attention to prejudice.

59. What’s the subject of paragraph 2?

A) How to eliminate our prejudice.

B) The pressure of social opinion.

C) The role of education to children.

D) Social forces that strengthen our bias

60. Which of the following can be used to describe the author's opinion about prejudice?

A) It is a difficult problem to solve.

B) It can be done away with.

C) It is an evil state of mind.

D) It should be criticized.

61. What’s the author’s purpose of writing this article?

A) To analyze social prejudice between social groups.

B) To reveal the danger of social prejudice.

C) To blame the politicians for frightening the audience

D) To show some examples of people’s prejudice.

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ppmm IP
07/12/16 13:41
要是每套题都付听力的mp3就 好了~~~~
sabrenna IP
07/11/07 16:35
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