Although credit cards are becoming a more acceptable part of the financial scene, they are still regarded with suspicion by many as being a major part of the "live now pay later" syndrome(^Jttt). Along with hire-purchase, rental and leasing schemes, they provide encouragement to spend more money. Of course, it is only the foolhardy who yield to the temptation to live, temporarily at least, beyond their means, and such people would no doubt manage to do so even without credit cards.
  Advertising campaigns have, however, promoted a growing realization of the advantages of these small pieces of plastic. They obviate (避免) need to carry large amounts of cash and are always useful in emergencies.
  All the credit card organizations charge interest on a monthly basis which may work out as high as 25 per cent a year, yet judicious purchasing using a card can mean that you obtain up to seven weeks, interest-free credit. Using the card abroad, where items frequently take a long time to be included on your account, can extend this period even further.
  It is worthwhile shopping around before deciding on a particular credit card. It is necessary to consider the amount of credit granted; interest rates, which may vary slightly; the number and range of outlets, though most cards cover major garages, hotels, restaurants and department stores; and of course, what happens if your card is lost or stolen. A credit card thief may be sitting on a potential goldmine particularly if there is a delay in reporting the loss of the card.
  However, if used wisely, a credit card can cost nothing, or at least help to tide you over a period of financial difficulty.

  26. Which of the following can not make you spend more money?
  A. Credit cards. B. Hire-purchase.
  C. Rental and leasing schemes. D. None of the above is right.
  27. The foolhardy are people who_______.
  A. spend more money than they have B. spend less money than other people C. save money D. make money
  28. The disadvantage of credit cards is_______.
  A. to enable you to buy things without carrying large amount of cash
  B. to encourage people to spend more money
  C. to be always useful in emergencies
  D. to help people tide over a period of financial difficulty
  29. According to the passage, credit cards are made of_______.
  A. paper B. gold
  C. plastic D. tin
  30. Deciding on a particular credit, you do not have to consider______.
  A. the amount of credit granted
  B. the number and range of outlets
  C. the possibility of loss of money
  D. the department stores where you are going to use your credit cards
  More attention was paid to the quality of production in France at the time of Rene Coty. Charles Deschanel was then the financial minister. He stressed that workmanship and quality were more important than quantity for industrial production. It would be necessary to produce quality goods for the international markets to compete with those produced in other countries. The French economy needed a larger share of international market to balance its import and export trade.

  French industrial and agricultural production was still inadequate to meet the immediate needs of the people, let alone long-ranged developments. Essential imports had stretched the national credit to the breaking point. Rents were tightly controlled, but the extreme inflation affected general population most severely through the cost of food. Food costs took as much as 80 percent of the worker's income. Wages, it is true, had risen. Extensive family allowances and benefits were paid by the state, and there was fulltime and overtime employment. Taken together, these factors enabled the working class to exist but allowed them no sense of security. In this discouraging situation, workmen were willing to work overseas for higher wages.

  The government was unwilling to let workers leave the country. It was feared that migration of workers would reduce the labor force. The lack of qualified workers might hinder the improvement in the quality of industrial products produced. Qualified workers employed abroad would only increase the quantity of quality goods produced in foreign countries. Also the quantity of quality goods produced in France would not be able to increase as part of its ualified labor force moved to other countries.

  1. The purpose of the passage is to_______.
  A. explain the French government's emphasis on quality products
  B. discuss Charles Deschanel's contribution to the French industrial development
  C. compare the quality of French goods with that of foreign goods
  D. show French workmen's enthusiasm to seek well-paid jobs in foreign countries
  2. It can be inferred from the passage that at the time of Rene Coty .
  A. France was still at the first stage of industrial development
  B. French workers were better paid than the workers in any other European countries
  C. the unemployment rate in France was comparatively higher than that in other European countries
  D. French workers were able to live better with the increase in their wages
  3. It is implied in the passage that at that time_______.
  A. France had a very large share of international market
  B. the import and export trade in France was making a successful advance
  C. demand and supply in France was barely balanced
  D. France was experiencing economic depression
  4. Which of the following is the best indicator of the extreme inflation in France?
  A. Eighty percent increase in the prices of consumer goods.
  B. High cost of food.
  C. High rents for houses.
  D. Lack of agricultural products.
  5. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage?
  A. Rents in France were tightly controlled.
  B. France was flooding the international market with inferior products.
  C. French workers were prohibited from going abroad to find jobs.
  D. The migration of French workers would hinder the improvement of quality in industrial production.
  As a company executive(总经理) who spent ten years in federal service, I am often asked what I regard as the biggest difference between working for the government and working for a private company. My invariable response is to say that I look back on my time in government as one of the most exciting and challenging experiences of my life. Furthermore, I never worked as hard as when I was a public servant.
  When I worked for the government, I worked with some of the finest, most competent and most committed people I have ever met. I was impressed by the overall quality of our career civil servants then, and I still am. But one of my greatest concerns now is that I will not be able to hold this same high opinion in the future.
  Career public servants are leaving government in alarming numbers, and qualified replacements are becoming harder and harder to find. Good people who leave career government service are striving for highly paid positions in private enterprises.
  We depend on government to keep this country safe in an uncertain world, to secure justice and domestic order and to solve a host of pressing problems. We need the best possible people performing and overseeing these vital tasks. A high-quality, professional federal service has been a source of national pride for more than a century. But what we have built up during a hundred years can be lost in less time than we imagine. We can't afford to let this happen. We must act now if this country is to be assured of the quality public service it deserves.

  21. Career public servants are leaving government in alarming numbers. One of the
  reasons may be that______.
  A. they received lower pay B. they deserved no fame and glory
  C. they performed poorly D. they worked harder than anyone else
  22. According to the author, _______, so I will not be able to hold this same high opinion
  toward the public servants in the future.
  A. I never worked as hard as when I was a public servant
  B. I have become a company executive
  C. there will not be so many competent and qualified servants in the government as we had before
  D. my time in government was not the most exciting experience in my life
  23. We depend on government to keep this country safe in an uncertain world, therefore,
  A. we should make greater contributions to the country
  B. the best possible people are urgently needed to do important tasks
  C. we should show deep concern about the nation's future
  D. we should become public servants
  24. If we neglect the serious problem and make no efforts, we will lose_______.
  A. national pride B. high-quality professional federal service
  C. good people D. private enterprise
  25. Which of the following is NOT TRUE?
  A. Those who work for companies are highly paid.
  B. More and more public servants have left the government.
  C. Career public servants are qualified.
  D. Many people of high qualities want to work in the government.
  Scientists at Sussex University appear to be on the way to ___1___ how the mosquito, carrier of diseases such as malaria and yellow fever, homes in on its target. The problem is that they have found that the best way to avoid being bitten is: stop breathing, stop sweating, and keep down the temperature of your immediate surroundings. __2__ the first suggestion is impossible and the others very difficult.
  Scientists have found that there are three ___3___ stages in a mosquito's assault. Stage one is at fifty feet away, when the insect first smells a man or a animal to ___4___ . Stage two is thought to come into operation about twenty-five feet from the target, when the insect becomes guided by the carbon dioxide breathed out by the intended victim. Stage three is when the mosquito is only a matter of inches from its ___5___ the warmth and moisture given off by the victim is the final clue.
  The researchers then * ___6___ how repellents interfere with its three-stage attack. They found repellents act more subtly than by just giving off a nasty smell. A Canadian researcher says that repellents appear to ___7___ mosquitoes first when it is following the carbon dioxide and second during the final approach, where the warmth and moisture are the insect's ___8___.
  Air pervaded by one of the many chemical repellents stops the mosquito reacting to the victim's carbon dioxide, and the repellent seems to affect the tiny hairs with which the insect senses moisture in the air. The sensors are blocked so that the ___9___ does not know whether it is flying through a moist current, or the sensors are made to send the ___10 ___ signals.

A. examined
B. animal
C. wrong
D. insect
E. bite
F. Unfortunately
G. inventing
H. distinct
I. prey
J. guide
K. checked
L. definite
M. Unnecessarily
N. confuse
O. discovering

  Etiquette (礼仪)

  The origins of etiquette—the conventional rules of behavior and ceremonies observed in polite society—are complex. One of them is respect for authority. From the most primitive times, subjects(臣民) showed respect for their ruler by bowing, prostrating themselves on the ground, not speaking until spoken to, and never turning their backs to the throne. Some rulers developed rules to stress even further the respect due to them. The emperors of Byzantium expected their subjects to kiss their feet. When an ambassador from abroad was introduced, he had to touch the ground before the throne with his forehead. Meanwhile the throne itself was raised in the air so that, on looking up, the ambassador saw the ruler far above him, haughty and remote.
  Absolute rulers have, as a rule, made etiquette more complicated rather than simpler. The purpose is not only to make the ruler seem almost godlike, but also to protect him from familiarity, for without some such protection his life, lived inevitably in the public eye, would be intolerable. The court of Louis XIV of France provided an excellent example of a very highly developed system of etiquette. Because the king and his family were considered to belong to France, they were almost continually on show among their courtiers (朝臣). They woke, prayed, washed and dressed before crowds of courtiers. Even large crowds watched them eat their meals, and access to their palace was free to all their subjects.
  Yet this public life was organized so carefully, with such a refinement of ceremonial, that the authority of the King and the respect in which he was held grew steadily throughout his lifetime. A crowd watched him dress, but only the Duke who was his first valet de chamber (贴身男仆) was allowed to hold out the right sleeve of his shirt, only the Prince who was his Grand Chamberlain could relieve him of his dressing gown, and only the Master of the Wardrobe might help him pull up his trousers. These were not familiarities, nor merely duties, but highly desired privileges. Napoleon recognized the value of ceremony to a ruler. When he became Emperor, he discarded the revolutionary custom of calling everyone "citizen", restored much of the Court ceremonial that the Revolution had destroyed, and recalled members of the nobility to instruct his new court in the old formal manners.
  Rules of etiquette may prevent embarrassment and even serious disputes. The general rule of social precedence is that people of greater importance precede those of lesser importance. Before the rules of diplomatic precedence were worked out in the early sixteenth century, rival ambassadors often fought for the most honourable seating position at a ceremony. Before the principle was established that ambassadors of various countries should sign treaties in order of seniority, disputes arose as to who should sign first. The establishment of rules for such matters prevented uncertainty and disagreement, as to rules for less important occasions. For example, at an English wedding, the mother of the bridegroom should sit in the first pew or bench on the right-hand side of the church. The result is dignity and order.
  Outside palace circles, the main concern of etiquette has been to make harmonious the behaviour of equals, but sometimes social classes have used etiquette as a weapon against intruders, refining their manners in order to mark themselves off from the lower classes.
  In sixteenth-century Italy and eighteenth-century France, decreasing prosperity and increasing social unrest led the ruling families to try to preserve their superiority by withdrawing from the lower and middle classes behind barriers of etiquette. In a prosperous community, on the other hand, polite society soon absorbs the newly rich, and in England there has never been any shortage of books on etiquette for teaching them the manners appropriate to their new way of life.
  Every code of etiquette has contained three elements: basic moral duties; practical rules which promote efficiency; and artificial, optional graces such as formal compliments to, say, women on their beauty or superiors on their generosity and importance.
  In the first category are consideration for the weak and respect for age. Among the ancient Egyptians the young always stood in the presence of older people. Among the Mponguwe of Tanzania, the young men bow as they pass the huts of the elders. In England, until about a century ago, young children did not sit in their parents' presence without asking permission.
  Practical rules are helpful in such ordinary occurrences of social life as making proper introductions at parties or other functions so that people can be  brought to know each other. Before the invention of the fork, etiquette directed that the fingers should be kept as clean as possible; before the handkerchief came into common use, etiquette suggested that, after spitting, a person should rub the spit inconspicuously (难以察觉的) underfoot.
  Extremely refined behavior, however, cultivated as an art of gracious living, has been characteristic only of societies with wealth and leisure, which admitted women as the social equals of men. After the fall of Rome, the first European society to regulate behavior in private life in accordance with a complicated code of etiquette was twelfth-century Provence, in France.
  Provence had become wealthy. The lords had returned to their castles from the crusades (十字军东征) , and there the ideals of chivalry (武士制度) grew up, which emphasized the virtue and gentleness of women and demanded that a knight (骑士) should profess a pure and dedicated love to a lady who would be his inspiration, and to whom he would dedicate his brave deeds, though he would never come physically close to her. This was the introduction of the concept of romantic love, which was to influence literature for many hundreds of years and which still lives on in a belittled form in simple popular songs and cheap novels today.
  In Renaissance Italy too, in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, a wealthy and leisured society developed an extremely complex code of manners, but the rules of behavior of fashionable society had little influence on the daily life of the lower classes. Indeed many of the rules, such as how to enter a banquet room, or how to use a sword or handkerchief for ceremonial purposes, were irrelevant to the way of life of the average working man, who spent most of his life outdoors or in his own poor hut and most probably did not have a handkerchief, certainly not a sword, to his name.
  Yet the essential basis of all good manners does not vary. Consideration for the old and weak and the avoidance of harming or giving unnecessary offence to others is a feature of all societies everywhere and at all levels from the highest to the lowest. You can easily think of dozens of examples of customs and habits in your own daily life which come under this heading.
  1. Etiquette simply serves the purpose of showing respect for authority.
  2. Louis XIV of France made etiquette very complicated to avoid familiarity.
  3. People of all societies and social ranks observe the good manners of consideration for the weak and respect for age.
  4. Napoleon discarded aristocratic privileges when he became Emperor of France.
  5. Etiquette has been used to distinguish people from different classes.
  6. In Europe, the newly rich have added new ingredients to etiquette while they are learning to behave appropriately for a new way of life.
  7. After the sixteenth century, fights between ambassadors over precedence were a common occurrence.
  8. Extremely refined behaviour had ______ on the life of the working class.
  9. Basic moral duties are one of the_______of every code of etiquette.
  10. According to the passage, the concept of romantic love was introduced in_______.
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