1.简答题。

  大纲中,关于简答题的介绍如下:

  简答题的篇幅长度约为400-450词,篇章后面有若干个问题,要求考生根据对文章的理解简洁地(少于10个词)回答问题或完成句子。
  通常来说,简答题在一篇文章之后有五道题,这五题中问答和完成句子的数量是不确定的,有时多问题,有时多完成句子。那经过对历年真题的分析,笔者发现此题的话题与传统阅读部分是非常相似的,基本上在交通、大众传媒、文化、网络这几个话题上,相对来说比传统阅读还要少一些。文章的难度相对较低,尤其是长难句的数量也有所减少。
  此题难度较低,原因在于绝大多数题目都是细节题的考法,而此处不需要对原文信息进行同义替换,可直接抄写原文信息,故此题只需要进行定位即可。考生朋友把握三条原则,此题可解。

  1)答案与问法一致原则。

  做此题时,首先看题干,划关键词,同时还要对问法做出标记,根据问法的不同,考生的回答也应该有所不同,如2009年6月20日真题的第47,48两道题:
  47. Where do girls get the notion that they need to be thin in order to be considered beautiful?
  此题干是Where引导的疑问句,在划关键词时,建议考生把Where和? 作出标记,这样可以避免后面做题时忽略问法。在做答时,由于本题是疑问句,考生要注意首字母大写。
  48. By promoting “body activism,” University of Texas psychologists aim to prevent ________。
  而此题是补全句子,要保证填写的单词或短语能根题干组合成为一句话,故不需要首字母大写,更不需要重复题干信息。
  2)照抄原文原则。
  定位后,可以通过对比原文与题干,找出丢失信息,直接从原文中抄写即可,尽量不要对原文信息做改写,或调整,必要的时候也只是同一个单词的词性的变化。请看下面例题:
  48. By promoting “body activism,” University of Texas psychologists aim to prevent ________。
  利用划线的两处名词,可以在原文中找到如下的句子:What is surprising is the method psychologists at the University of Texas have come up with to keep girls from developing eating disorders. Their main weapon against super skinny (role) models: a brand of civil disobedience dubbed “body activism。”
  再看题干中问的是prevent(防止)一件事情,而原文中确定划线句为真正的解题句,其中有一个短语,keep……from……,正是防止的意思,于是48题的答案即为:developing eating disorders。解题完毕。
  3)题目与文章顺序高度一致原则。
  此题的规律与快速阅读的顺序规律是完全一样的,在此笔者不做过多赘述。请参考快速阅读中的相关讲解。

  2.选词填空。

  这也是广大考生朋友普遍反映难度很大的题目,究其原因是大家对此题较为陌生,在以往的英语考试中题目形式往往是固定的几样,然而这种形式,让习惯了四选一的考生朋友找不到方向了,由于此题还未曾在真正的六级考试中出现过,但四级却是必考的题目,所以笔者将会结合四级考过的题目大概介绍一下此题可能具有的命题规律和一般解题思路。
  1)命题规律。
  选词填空的主要考察四种词性的单词,分别为动词、名词、形容词和副词。通常只需要关注单词的含义,而很少涉及到用法,因此这部分对考生的要求主要是单词的识记,和前后文含义的把握,属于基本的字面理解。
  然而在四级的选词填空真题中我们也发现一种现象,那就是有些选项词汇的词性是不确定的,如以-ing结尾的单词,可能是形容词,也可能是动名词,也可能只是动词的现在分词,具体是哪一种词性最终要看它所表达的意思,和文章所需要的意思。类似还有-ed结尾和-es/s结尾的单词。这一点会给考生在理解上带来一定的难度,不知道如何处理这类单词。
      英语六级考试中阅读理解占了很大的比重,能否拿下英语六级考试阅读其决定性作用。下面是总结众多考生的建议提出的四难点:

  1、 生词较多

  许多同学感觉六级阅读中生词较多,阅读时不得不花费大量的时间和精力去理解文章中出现的生词。确实,词汇量是任何英文阅读(特别是像六级这样的高级英文阅读)的基础。但我认为六级单词相对于4级仅多了1200个。如果考生能充分掌握4级词汇,文章中出现的所谓的生词是不应该成为我们阅读的拦路虎。
  我们知道,任何文章段落与段落或句子与句子之间都会有逻辑联系。句子中词的作用(尤其是形容词、副词或连词)就在于体现某种逻辑关系。考生完全可以通过体会句子与句子之间的逻辑关系猜出或体会出某种生词的指向范围或大致含义。因为六级考试阅读文章并不要求对“生词”释义的精确掌握——我们的目的是了解文章或句子大意。所以,只要达到这种效果我们就能掌握文章或句子的大致内容,完全符合考试大纲的要求。
  如今离考试越来越近,再背字典是不可能的了。建议大家背历年真题里的生词,在阅读真题的过程中将自己不认识的单词划出来重点记忆,特别是这几年真题里经常出现的高频词汇,这些词汇对应试都有很大帮助,甚至可以用在作文中。

  2、 难句看不懂

  六级四篇阅读文章中必定会出现一些难句。也许难句中的每一个词考生都能看懂,但是整个句子却无法把握其含义。就其原因在于中国同学欠缺两方面的英文阅读能力:1、缺乏对英文语言表达思维习惯的适应;2、不能抓住难句的句子主干。首先,英文的语言表达思维习惯与中文有较大的区别。中文习惯主、谓、宾的句子结构;英文中却存在大量的倒装结构,再加上繁杂的插入语等复杂的语言现象对于习惯将英文翻译成中文后理解英文的中国考生而言无法对入中文的理解习惯,自然无法理解句子的含义。其次,无法从复杂的从句套从句语法结构中判断出句子主干,同样会导致无法对入相应的中文语言习惯而最终使考生无法把握句子含义。
  这是关于阅读习惯的问题,短时间内很难改变。考试临近,建议大家多看真题阅读文章中的句子,将他们分段、抓主干后翻译,尽量培养阅读习惯,做好热身也总比打无准备之仗强。

  3、 无法判断句子隐含意思

  我们知道六级文章要求考生对原文的信息进行推断。换言之,就是从文章的原话中无法知道考生需要知道的信息。我认为这是源于考生在平时训练六级考试时往往忽略对文章推理方法的熟悉而导致的。任何隐含信息的推出都是基于原文提供的信息进行相应的逻辑推理得出的。考生如果不能进行有效的逻辑推理要么无法得出隐含信息,要么就会选错方向而落入命题者的陷阱中。
  考生在做题时可以先将问题中与原文出现的相同词汇划出来,然后再做依次排除,一般答案是与原文意思相同但词语使用不同的那句。平时这就要求考生多阅读国外文章,培养外国人的思维方式,这对考试也是很有帮助的。或者如果时间充裕,建议考生将六级词汇按同义、近义词进行分类背记。

  4、 时间不够

  我们知道六级阅读文章要在35分钟内读完4篇文章并且做5道题目,考生如感觉时间不够的原因无外乎三个原因:1、花在文章阅读的时间太长;2、无法快速地定位选项在文章中的定位(表现在不得不从新阅读、浏览全文或某个文章段落);3、无法快速、准确的从四个备选项中判断出正确选项(表现在犹豫不决)。

  针对考生感觉时间不够的问题且文章大意比较明了的时候,建议考生先从题目看起,看完题目后再去文章中找答案,这样更有针对性,还可以将文中的例子忽略不看,节省时间,提高阅读速度。如果这样还感觉时间不够的话,其实可以缩短其他词汇类题目的答题时间,适当的将阅读部分的时间延长到40-45分钟,不过也要保证其他题目有时间做才行。

  The "standard of living" of any country means the average person's share of the goods and services which the country produces. A country's standard of living, therefore, depends first and foremost on its capacity to produce wealth. "Wealth" in this sense is not money, for we do not live on money but on things that money can buy: "goods" such as food and clothing, and "services" such as transport and entertainment.
  A country's capacity to produce wealth depends upon many factors, most of which have an effect on one another. Wealth depends to a great extent upon a country's natural resources, such as coal, gold, and other minerals, water supply and so on. Some regions of the world are well supplied with coal and minerals, and have a fertile soil and a favorable climate; other regions possess perhaps only one of these things, and some regions possess none of them. The U. S. A is one of the wealthiest regions of the world because she has vast natural resources within her borders, her soil is fertile, and her climate is varied. The Sahara Desert, on the other hand, is one of the least wealthy.
  Next to natural resources comes the ability to turn them to use. China is perhaps as well off as the U. S. A. in natural resources, but suffered for many years from civil and external wars, and for this and other reasons was. unable to develop her resources. Sound and stable political conditions, and freedom from foreign invasion, enable a country to develop its natural resources peacefully and steadily, and to produce more wealth than another country equally well served by nature but less well ordered. Another important factor is the technical efficiency of a country's people. Old countries that have, through many centuries, trained up numerous skilled craftsmen and technicians are better placed to produce wealth than countries whose workers are largely unskilled. Wealth also produces wealth. As a country becomes wealthier, its people have a large margin for saving, and can put their savings into factories and machines which will help workers to turn out more goods in their working day.

  1. A country's wealth depends upon______. ,
  A. its standard of living
  B. its money
  C. its ability to provide goods and services
  D. its ability to provide transport and entertainment
  2. The word "foremost" means______.
  A. most importantly B. firstly
  C. largely D. for the most part
  3. The main idea of the second paragraph is that______.
  A. a country's wealth depends on many factors
  B. the U. S. A. is one of the wealthiest countries in the world
  C. the Sahara Desert is a very poor region
  D. natural resources are an important factor in the wealth or poverty of a country
  4. The third paragraph mentions some of the advantages which one country may have over another in making use of its resources. How many such advantages are mentioned in this paragraph?
  A. 2  B. 3
  C. 4  D. 5
  5. The second sentence.in Paragraph 3 is______.
  A. the main idea of the paragraph
  B. an example supporting the main idea of the paragraph
  C. the conclusion of the paragraph
  D. not related to the paragraph


【答案见下页】
  The productivity of Americans employed in private businesses has declined. The productivity of workers in countries such as Japan and Germany is increasing. American machine tools, on average, are old, relatively inefficient, and rapidly becoming obsolete, whereas those of our competitors overseas, in comparison, are newer and more efficient. We are no longer the most productive workers in the world. We are no longer the leaders in industrial innovation (革新). We are an immensely

  wealthy nation of educated men and women who seem to have lost sight of the fact that everything—from the simplest necessities to the finest luxuries—must be produced through our own collective hard work. We have come to expect automatic increases in our collective standard of living, but we seem to have forgotten that these increases are possible only when our productivity continues to grow.

  One thing that must change is the rate at which we substitute capital equipment for human labor. Simply put, our labor force has increased at a far greater rate than has our stock of capital investment. We seem to have forgotten that our past productivity gains, to a large extent, were realized from substitutions of capital for human labor. Today, 3 times as many robots are listed as capital assets by Japanese firms as by United States firms.

  There is no doubt that robots will become a common sight in American factories. Representing a new generation of technology, robots will replace factory labor much as the farm tractor replaced the horse. Robot technology has much to offer. It offers higher levels of productivity and quality at lower costs; in promises to free men and women from the dull, repetitious toil of the factory, it is likely to have an impact on society comparable to that made by the growth of computer technology.

  1. The word "obsolete"(Para. 1) most probably means_______.
  A. weak B. old
  C. new D. out of date
  2. The author is anxious about_______.
  A. his people no longer taking the lead in industrial innovation
  B. his country no longer being a wealthy nation
  C. his people forgetting to raise their productivity
  D. his country falling behind other industrial nations
  3. According to the author, in his country_______..
  A. the proportion of labor force to capital investment is quite low
  B. the growth rate of labor force should be greater than that of capital investment
  C. the productivity increases should be achieved by the increases of labor force
  D. capital investment should have increased more rapidly than labor force
  4. So far as the influence on society is concerned, _______.
  A. robot technology seems to be much more promising than computer technology
  B. computer technology has less to offer than robot technology
  C. robot technology can be compared with computer technology
  D. robot technology cannot be compared with computer technology
  5. The purpose of the author in writing this passage is to show that_______.
  A. robots will help increase labor productivity
  B. robots will rule American factories
  C. robots are cheaper than human laborers
  D. robots will finally replace humans in factories

【答案见下页】
  Sugar is so much a part of our modern life that we only really think about it when, for some ___1___ , we cannot obtain it. It has been known to man for at least 3,000 years, but has ___2___ into common use only in ___3___times. Until quite recently it was considered as a medicine and as a luxury for the very rich only.

  Sugar is, then, ___4 ___to our civilization. But what___5___ is it? Of course, most of us recognize sugar immediately as the sweet material which we put in coffee or cakes. This common form of sugar is derived from two plants: the sugar cane (a type of grass which grows to a height of twenty feet) and the sugar beet (which grows under ground). But there are in fact many types of sugar, and the chemist recognizes hundreds of different ___6___ , each coming from a different source.

  About 90% of the sugar is produced as food. Only 10% is used in industry for ___7___other than food production. Yet sugar has great possibilities for use as the basis of chemicals. It can even be used for making plastics. In the future these potential uses will certainly be developed more than in the past.

  There are many reasons why we should ___8___the production of sugar. Most important is that it is one of the most highly concentrated of energy foods.

  Thus sugar cane and beet produce an average of 7,000,000 calories per acre. In this way they have the advantage over potatoes which give only 4, 000, 000, while the___9___ for wheat and beans is 2 ,000,000 each. So three acres of land growing wheat, beans and potatoes give only ___10__more energy than one acre of sugar.

  A. slightly B. intention C. reason D. modern
  E. strongly F. figure G. come H. significant
  I. exactly J. increase K. proposals L. turn
  M. purposes N. varieties O. serious

【答案见下页】
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