As Sesame Street kicks off its 40th anniversary season Tuesday, with first lady Michelle Obama and Broadway star Lin-Manuel Miranda as guests, it is indisputably the most beloved children’s show in history, and one of television’s biggest and most enduring success stories.
  The series holds a record 122 Emmy Awards, not including a lifetime-achievement trophy (奖±) award, and has been adapted in more than 120 countries and territories around the globe. An estimated 100,000 Sesame products have been made available internationally, from T-shirts and costumes to high-tech toys such as Elmo Live.
  Sesame’s cross-cultural, multi-generational appeal has a lot to do with the specific age group it targets. “The bulk of our audience is in the 2s and 3s, though we shoot for 2 to 4,” says executive producer Carol-Lynn Parente. At that early stage, says Spinney — who is 75, and has been with the show since Day 1 (he plays Oscar as well) — “children are basically the same, and have been through the years.”
  But if preschoolers’ fundamental needs and sensibilities haven’t changed much, the world around them has — not least of all on the media landscape, where Sesame Street now competes with many other kids’ shows and an ever-expanding array of new media.
  In 2000, the Children’s Television Workshop, the organization through which creator Joan Ganz Cooney launched Sesame Street on PBS predecessor NET, changed its title to Sesame Workshop, to reflect its expansion into the digital, interactive age.
  Content and presentation continue to evolve on TV as well. The show’s famously catchy theme song, Sunny Day, now has a hip-hop beat and a jazzier arrangement. Parente stresses that it’s just as important “to keep our curriculum current. The ABC’s and 123’s are always there, but we stay relevant by incorporating other things that are interesting and meaningful.”
  “We focus on all aspects of development — cognitive needs, social and emotional needs, health needs — and bring in advisers who are experts in each area, to make sure we’re age-appropriate,” says Rosemarie Truglio, vice president of education and research, Sesame Workshop. “But we never talk down to children, and we’re not afraid to explore sensitive topics.”
  Sesame has had its critics in the academic community as well.
  For Mary Lynn Crow, a clinical psychologist and professor of education at the University of Texas-Arlington, “shows like Sesame Street lack the potentially deep, personal emotional imprint (影响) that can and should occur between a student and teacher in an early educational experience.”
  On the other hand, Crow considers Sesame Street “a beautiful model of what I call high-tech learning. They can teach children about letters, numbers, color and size through repetition in ways traditional education can’t, and provide early information about attitudes, values and relationships.”

  1. What do we learn about Sesame Street from the first two paragraphs?
  A) It rose to fame because of the first lady’s role.
  B) It’s successful and gains international popularity.
  C) It still has to win a lifetime-achievement award.
  D) It is the most successful show in American history.
  2. What’s Spinney’s opinion on the target audience of Sesame Street?
  A) They are completely different than they were 40 years ago.
  B) Many of them are devoted fans of the performance.
  C) Their basic needs haven’t changed much through years.
  D) They continue to watch the show when they have grown up.
  3. The author says that in the current world, Sesame Street _______.
  A) has slight edge over other shows targeting children
  B) has made some changes so as to keep up with the times
  C) tries to cater to adults who accompany their children to the show
  D) is doomed to fail due to its out-dated content and presentation
  4. What can be inferred about Sesame Street from Rosemarie Truglio’s words?
  A) It tries to prepare children both for school and life’s lessons.
  B) Its writer has changed the theme of the story for kids.
  C) Children seem to be looked down upon in the show.
  D) Sensitive topics have always been banned in the show.
  5. Mary Lynn Crow is negative about Sesame Street because she thinks it _______.
  A) only touches up superficial relationships
  B) is too complicated for children to understand
  C) goes against ways of traditional education
  D) repeats basic knowledge over and over again
【答案见下页】
  1、Helen of Troy “特洛伊的海伦”,“红颜祸水”。

  Helen是希腊的绝世佳人,美艳无比,嫁给希腊南部邦城斯巴达国王墨涅俄斯(Menelaus)为妻。后来,特洛伊王子帕里斯奉命出事希腊,在斯巴达国王那里做客,他在爱与美之神阿芙罗狄蒂的帮助下,趁着墨涅俄斯外出之际,诱走海伦,还带走了很多财宝

  此事激起了希腊各部族的公愤,墨涅俄斯发誓说,宁死也要夺回海伦,报仇雪恨。为此,在希腊各城邦英雄的赞助下,调集十万大军和1180条战船,组成了希腊联军,公推墨涅俄斯的哥哥阿枷门农(Agamemnon)为联军统帅,浩浩荡荡,跨海东征,攻打特洛伊城,企图用武力夺回海轮。双方大战10年,死伤无数,许多英雄战死在沙场。甚至连奥林匹斯山的众神也分成2个阵营,有些支持希腊人,有些帮助特洛伊人,彼此展开了一场持久的恶斗。最后希腊联军采用足智多谋的奥德修斯(Odusseus)的“木马计”,里应外合才攻陷了特洛伊。希腊人进城后,大肆杀戮,帕里斯王子也被杀死,特洛伊的妇女、儿童全部沦为奴隶。特洛伊城被掠夺一空,烧成了一片灰烬。战争结实后,希腊将士带着大量战利品回到希腊,墨涅俄斯抢回了美貌的海伦重返故土。这就是特洛伊战争的起因和结局。正是由于海轮,使特洛伊遭到毁灭的悲剧,真所谓“倾国倾城”,由此产生了Helen of Troy这个成语。

  所谓“特洛伊的海伦”,实质上是财富和商业霸权的化身。中国历史上也有过“妲己亡商”,“西施沼吴”等传说,以及唐明皇因宠杨贵妃而招致“安史之乱”,吴三桂“冲冠一怒为红颜”等说法。汉语中有个“倾国倾城”的成语(语出《汉书·外戚传》:‘一顾倾人城,再顾倾人国’。)这里的“倾”字一语双光,既可指美艳非凡,令人倾倒;也可纸倾覆邦国。其含义与Helen of troy十分近似。

  所谓“特洛伊的海伦”,实质上是财富和商业霸权的化身。中国历史上也有过“妲己亡商”,“西施沼吴”等传说,以及唐明皇因宠杨贵妃而招致“安史之乱”,吴三桂“冲冠一怒为红颜”等说法。汉语中有个“倾国倾城”的成语(语出《汉书·外戚传》:‘一顾倾人城,再顾倾人国’。)这里的“倾”字一语双光,既可指美艳非凡,令人倾倒;也可纸倾覆邦国。其含义与Helen of troy十分近似。

  在现代英语中,Helen of Troy这个成语,除了表示a beautiful girl or woman; a beauty who ruins her country等意义外,还可以用来表示a terrible disaster brought by sb or sth you like best的意思。

  2、The Heel of Achilles 亦作The Achilles‘ Heel唯一弱点;薄弱环节;要害 = deadly / fatal/ mortal

  The Heel of Achilles直译是“阿基里斯的脚踵”,是个在欧洲广泛流行的国际性成语。阿基里斯是希腊联军里最英勇善战的骁将,传说他是希腊密耳弥多涅斯人的国王珀琉斯和海神的女儿西蒂斯所生的儿子。阿基里斯呱呱坠地以后,母亲想使儿子健壮永生,把他放在火里锻炼,又捏着他的脚踵倒浸在冥河(Styx)圣水里浸泡。因此阿基里斯浑身象钢筋铁骨,刀枪不入,只有脚踵部位被母亲的手捏住,没有沾到冥河圣水,成为他的唯一要害。在特洛伊战争中,太阳神阿波罗(Apollo)把阿基里斯的弱点告诉了特洛伊王子帕里斯,阿基里斯终于被帕里斯诱到城门口,用暗箭射中他的脚踵,负伤而死。

  因此, the Achilles’ heel,常用以表示a weak point in something that is otherwise without fault; the weakest spot等意思。

  因此, the Achilles‘ heel,常用以表示a weak point in something that is otherwise without fault; the weakest spot等意思。

  E.g.:His Achilles’ heel was his pride--he would get very angry if anyone criticized his work。



  3、Adam‘s apple 喉结

  根据《圣经》记载,上帝造人之初,亚当和夏娃无忧无虑地生活在伊甸园里。园里有一棵树,结着许多令人垂涎欲滴的果实——苹果。上帝告诫两人不要偷吃果实,可是他们听信了蛇的谗言而抵挡不住诱惑,偷吃了禁果。亚当在惊慌失措中将一个苹果核卡在喉咙里,留下一个疙瘩。作为惩罚,上帝就让这个苹果核永远留在他的喉咙里,成为男性的喉结。这个故事伴随《圣经》代代相传,家喻户晓。后来人们就用Adam’s apple表示“男人的喉结”。

  例句:I find that your Adam‘s apple isn’t apparent。 我发现你的喉结不明显。

  4、Narcissus

  从前有个男孩,他的名字叫做“Narcissus”(水仙)。身为一名天神的儿子他长得十分英俊。有许多爱慕着他的少女向他示爱却都被他拒绝了。在爱慕着他的众多少女中有位美丽的仙女做做“Echo”(回音),由于Echo不能正常得说出想说的话而只能不断得重复别人的言语所以她并不能清楚的告诉Narcissus她对他的爱意。有天当Narcissus和他的几个朋友在森林中漫步时和其他的朋友走失了。他喊到“有人在吗?”Echo也说“有人在吗?”Echo上前想抱住Narcissus却被Narcissus拒绝了Echo非常得伤心,她跑到一个无人的山洞,一直待到她的外形完全消失只剩下她的声音能被人们所听到。

  一名女神听说了这件事。她非常得愤怒,并用神力使Narcissus爱上了他自己。当Narcissus在湖泊的水边看到自己的影子时,他顿时爱上了水中的人。他一直待在那湖边,直到渐渐死去,在他死的地方长出许多的野花,这种花被人们取名叫做Narcissus(水仙花)。
  2011年6月英语六级完形填空训练(1)

  Directions, There are 20 blanks in the following, passage For each blank there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D) on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.

  注意:此部分试题请在答题卡2上作答。


  The weather may be cold and wet, but in the rich world's financial markets it is beginning to feel like August all over again. Credit spreads have widened and Sharesare( 62 )from gloom to elation (兴高彩烈) as( 63)look to the Federal Reserve for solace (安慰). The (54)is unmistakable. But this time the scare is about more than bad mortgage loans and their(65) effect on the credit markets. America may be falling into(66)And a new fear now stalks the markets: that the dollar's slide could 67 out of control.
  A full-blown dollar crisis on top of a credit crumch (经济收缩) and a weakening economy would be 68 It would send financial markets reeling and (69)the hands of the Fed, perhaps forcing it to raise interest(70)even as recession looms. The sky-high euro would 71 further, choking off Europe's growth.
  (72)tensions would also rise. ( 73) Airbus has called the dollar's(74)life-threatening" and France's president, Nicolas Sarkozy, has given
  warning of "economic war".
  At(75 ), the shadows could darken further. For half a century the dollar has been the hegemonic (霸权的) currency. A large slice of global trade is counted
  in dollars. Central banks hold most of their foreign-exchange.(76)in dollars, a boon for America that has allowed it to(77) debt more cheaply. That (78) has survived dollar slides before, ( 79 )in the late 1970s and mid-1980 s. But now, with the euro as an alternative, the fear is of a sudden shift in the global monetary system, with investors(80)quickly from one currency to the other.
  So far, this remains only a fear. Whether disaster strikes depends on what exactly is driving the dollar (81) and on how policymakers react.
  62.
  A) pitching
  B) plunging
  C) splitting
  D) drooping
  63.
  A) architects
  B) protesters
  C) investors
  D) victims
  54.
  A) prosperity
  B) anxiety
  C) relief
  D) diagnosis
  65.
  A) positive
  B) irritable
  C) offensive
  D) harmful
  66.
  A) congestion
  B) dilemma
  C) fluctuation
  D) recession
  67.
  A) spin
  B) stun
  C) swing
  D) slash
  68.
  A) stimulating
  B) frightening
  C) motivating
  D) confusing
  69.
  A) loosen
  B) bury
  C) tie
  D) cross
  70.
  A) points
  B) portions
  C) ratios
  D) rates
  71.
  A) dive
  B) slip
  C) soar
  D) float
  72.
  A) Political
  B) Economic
  C) Cultural
  D) Psychological
  73.
  A) Since
  B) Before
  C) Already
  D) Even
  74.
  A) rejection
  B) decline
  C) circulation
  D) inflation
  75.
  A) worst
  B) most
  C) best
  D) least
  76.
  A) savings
  B) reserves
  C) accounts
  D) maintenances
  77.
  A) publish
  B) lease
  C) emit
  D) issue
  78.
  A) equivalence
  B) prominence
  C) dominance
  D) prevalence
  79.
  A) as
  B) once
  C) while
  D) since
  80.
  A) reversing
  B) switching
  C) converting
  D) varying
  81.
  A) forward
  B) out
  C) off
  D) down

【答案见下页】
       阅读理解一直是英语六级考试中的大头戏,往往是成也在此,败也在此。

  大意:

  原文重现:原文告诉你选什么,你就应该选什么,不能凭感觉和想象。

  尽量少读:六级更多的对点出题,而不是对面出题。
  所有句子都认识,但不知道整段的意思。But, Yet, However 转折连词后面是重点,常考点做题是要划下来。

  六级题型:

  1. 主旨题(Sum Up/Title)--看文章每段第一句(抓大放小,找最重要的,看每段的第一句),但是当文章的段落特别多时不适应。
  24. Which of the following can best sum up the passage?
  A) Advantages and disadvantages of automation.
  B) Labour and the effects of automation.
  C) Unemployment benefit plans and automation.
  D) Social benefits of automation.考试大-中国教育考试门户网站(www.233.com)
  注:文章三段第一句都出现automation,两段出现labour,因此这两个词是重点,必然在选项中出现。
  Automation refers to the introduction of electronic control and automatic operation of productive machinery. It reduces the human factors, mental and physical, in production, and is designed to make possible the manufacture of more goods with fewer workers. The development of automation in American industry has been called the "Second Industrial Revolution".
  注:refers to 指的是(对前面的词下定义)
  Labour's concern over automation arises from uncertainty about the effects on employment, and fears of major changes in jobs. In the main, labour has taken the view that resistance to technical change is unfruitful. Eventually, the result of automation may well be an increase in employment, since it is expected that vast industries will grow up around manufacturing, maintaining, and repairing automation equipment. The interest of labour lies in bringing about the transition with a minimum of inconvenience and distress to the workers involved. Also, union spokesmen emphasize that the benefit of the increased production and lower costs made possible by automation should be shared by workers in the form of higher wages, more leisure, and improved living standards.
  注:labour 雇员(即employee)
  concern [U]: (concern over/for/about sth./sb.) worry, anxiety
  To protect the interests of their members in the era of automation, unions have adopted a number of new policies. One of these is the promotion of supplementary unemployment benefit plans. It is emphasized that since the employer involved in such a plan has a direct financial interest in preventing unemployment, he will have a strong drive for planning new installations so as to cause the least possible problems in jobs and job assignments. Some unions are working for dismissal pay agreements, requiring that permanently dismissed workers be paid a sum of money based on length of service. Another approach is the idea of the "improvement factor", which calls for wage increases based on increases in productivity. It is possible, however, that labour will rely mainly on reduction in working hours in order to gain a full share in the fruits of automation.
  注:union 工会,联盟,和雇员有关
  2. 词汇题--找词所在句子关系
  转折关系。例如:六级很难,但是……,找转折连词But, Yet, However。
  并列关系。例如:A and B,问A就把B内容填进去。六级中and前后一定是一致的。
  解释关系。用because和从句in which等联系。
  例如:
  30. "An identifying figure" (Line 2, Para. 5) refers to a person ______.
  A) who serves as a model for others
  B) who is always successful
  C) who can be depended upon
  D) who has been rewarded for his success
  (文章前四段省略)
  Admiration of one quality often leads us to admire a person as a whole, and he becomes an identifying figure. We use some people as models over a wide range of situations, imitating much that they do. We learn that they are dependable and rewarding models because imitating them leads to success.
  注:把握and前后是并列关系。(榜样就是别人敬仰的人)记住不要多读!!!多读会选错!
  If your author is a good author, he or she will begin each paragraph with a key statement that tells you what that paragraph is about. By reading only the first sentence, you can determine if the paragraph has information you need to know.

  如果作者够水准的话,他/她在每段的开头都会交代一下该段所的大概内容。只要读每段的第一句话,你就能够判断出该段有没有你想了解的信息了。

  If you're reading literature, this still applies, but know that you may miss details that enrichthe story. When the language in literature is artful, I would choose to read every word.

  如果你读的是文学作品的话,这个方法依然适用。不过要知道,这样的话你可能会错过很多用于丰富故事的细节。如果所读的文学作品妙语连珠的话,我会选择逐字逐句地拜读。

  一段的最后一句话也应该会包含有关这段材料的重要性的线索。段末一句话一般来说有2个功能-总结一下所表达的思想;为下一段作过渡。

  当浏览过段首及段末的两句话后,如果你觉得这段内容值得你去读,你也不必逐字通读。眼睛快速扫描每行文字,寻找词组和关键词。你的大脑会自动帮你补全那些跳过的文字的。

  忽略诸如it,to,a,an,and,be等“小词”-这些词你太熟悉了。(在阅读过程中,)你并不需要他们。你的大脑会自动识别这些小词的。

  在以词组为单位进行阅读时,注意寻找要点。有关于文章中研究对象的关键词,可能你在事先已做到心中有数了。在阅读过程中,这些关键词会在你眼前跳出来。多花点时间在那些要点附近的材料上。

  我知道,大家从小就被教导不要往书上乱写。对于有些书应该是这样的,但教科书是用来学习的,可以在空白的地方记下一些重要的想法和心得。如果能让你感觉更舒服的话,你可以用铅笔来记,更可以买些可粘贴的小便签,在上面记些短小的笔记,然后贴到书页上。到复习的时候,只要浏览一遍你的便签便可。

  If you're renting your textbooks, make sure you understand the rules.

  如果你的教科书是借来的,一定要懂规矩哦。

  1 Use all the tools provided -- lists, bullets, sidebars.

  Use all the tools the author provides -- lists, bullets, sidebars, anything extra in the margins. Authors usually pull out key points for special treatment. They're clues to important information. Use them all. Besides, lists are usually easier to remember.

  对于作者使用的写作表现形式(如列表,文字前面作为强调的圆形符号,栏框等所有在空白处额外体现的东西),要加以充分利用。作者通常会把关键点拎出来加以特别处理。这些表现形式都是寻找重要信息的线索,一定要充分利用。此外,列表也通常更容易记。

  2 Take notes for practice tests.

  When you read something you know will show up on a test, write it down in the form of a question. Note the page number beside it so you can check your answers if necessary.

  当读到一些你认为会在考试中出现的知识点时,把它以问题的形式记下来。在问题边上写下答案所在的页码,以便在必要时查看答案。

  Keep a list of these key questions and you'll have written your own practice test.

  把这些重要问题列在一起,你就可以进行自我模考了。

  3 Read with good posture.

  Reading with good posture helps you read longer and stay awake longer. Give your body a break. Sit in a healthy way and you'll last a lot longer.

  阅读时保持一个良好的姿势能够让你更长时间地,清醒地进行阅读。让你的身体放松,保持健康的坐姿,你便能更长时间地看书了。

  Much as I love to read in bed, it puts me to sleep. If reading puts you to sleep, too, don't read lying down.

  我虽然喜欢躺在床上看书,但这也总是令我很快陷入昏昏欲睡的境地。如果你也是这样的话,那就不要躺着看书了。
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