[不指定 07/05/15 08:52 | by admin ]

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  (1) 构词知识














  (2) 上下文线索


  ①同义定义为了便于读者理解作者本义,作者有时会对文中的生僻词或专业性较强的词直接给出定义。在下定义时,作者常使用一些信号词,如:is/are(called),means,can be defined as,refer to,is/are known as,signify等,例:

  Food fallacies refer to beliefs about food that are not true.


  Multiplexing ——transmitting independent signals at the same time in the same channel——increases the efficiency of radio channels.


  Nerve cells evidently first appeared in coelenterates, “hollowgutted” organisms like hydra and the sea anemone.

  Intelligent behavior remained impossible until the appearance of relatively big,complex types of brain——the types we find among the vertebrates,or backboned animals.


  Mr. and Mrs. Firth had a long courtship. They dated for nine years before they got married.

  Although he often had the opportunity,Mr. Tritt never stole money from a customer. This would have endangered his position at the bank,and he did not want to jeopardize his future.

  ③反义对照在表示对照的上下文中,常包含有意义相反的词语或概念,这些意义相反的概念可以互为线索,帮助我们猜度词义。常有以下一些信号词:although,but,however,though,whereas,while,yet,on the contrary,on the other hand等。

  例:Chimpanzees(猩猩) in the wild use simple objects as tools,but in laboratory situations they can use more sophisticated items.

  Most dentists-offices are drab places,while Emilio’s new office is a bright,cheerful place.


  People gathered to look. Three fine streams of hot water sprouted from holes in the jacket(套,壳) of the radiator.

  A man is watering his lawn just as an attractive,well dressed girl walked by. As he ogles her,he accidentally turns the hose on his ugly,dowdy wife.


  The consequences of epochal events such as wars and great scientific discoveries are not confined to a small geographical area.

  Doctors believe that smoking cigarettes is detrimental to your health. They also regard drinking as harmful.


  Robert is considered peremptory administrator because he makes decisions without seeking the opinions of others.

  When Mark was in pedantic mood,he assumed the manner of a famous professor and gave long lectures on boring, insignificant topics.


  An apple falls down instead of up because of gravity.

  An atomic clock is so precise that it can be used to check the accuracy of predictions based on Einstein’s relativity theories.



  Many people believe the glare from snow causes snowblindness. Yet…这里根据表示转折的关联词Yet,预测到下面可能出现的是主题句,又必然要否定本句中许多人的观点,即snowblindness(雪盲)可能由glare from snow以外的其它原因引起。原文紧接着的是:Yet,dark glasses or not,they find themselves suffering from headaches and watering eyes,and even snowblindness,when exposed to several hours of “snow light”.


  The United States Army has now determined that glare from snow does not cause snowblindness in troops in a snow-covered country. Rather,a man’s eyes frequently find nothing to focus on in a broad expanse of barren snow-covered terrain. So his gaze continually shifts and jumps back and forth over the entire landscape in search of something to look at. Finding nothing hour after hour,the eyes never stop searching and the eyeballs become sore and the eye muscles ache. Nature offsets this irritation by producing more and more fluid which covers the eyeball. The fluid covers the eyeball in increasing quantity until vision blurs,then is obscured,and the result is total,even though temporary,snowblindness.





  (1) 判断推测句中omnivorous一词的大意

  She has a wide interest and is an omnivorous reader.


  (2) 根据前文,判断下文

  Laziness is a sin, everyone knows that. Nevertheless…

  A) laziness can actually be helpful

  B) laziness is a sign of mental illness

  C) laziness is immoral and wasteful

  D) you must be careful when you see someone lazy


  (3) 判断作者观点

  Which of the following statements was written by someone who prefers small cars to large ones?

  A) Their excellent gas mileage and even their improved interior design notwithstanding,today’s compact cars simply fail to provide the feel a traditional motorist yearns for.

  B) They lack some of the size and even the character of the full-sized autos we were accustomed to; but today’s compacts more than make up for this with their excellent gas mileage.




  (1) 句子的归纳

  A) Microwave ovens have eliminated many of the inconveniences previously associated with the preparation of meals.

  B) Many foods can go directly from the freezer to the microwave oven without being defrosted.

  C) Many microwave ovens can be pre-set to cook food while you are away from the kitchen.

  D) The microwave oven has greatly reduced the amount of time it takes to cook a meal.

  题中四句话都提到微波炉的好处,其中B、C、D 分别从方便、解冻、定时三个不同的方面具体讲述微波炉不同于传统炊具的优势,而A则从整体上覆盖了上述三句的内容,故A是对B、C、D的概括,上述分析、寻找最具概括意义之选项的过程即为归纳过程。推而广之,我们可用之于段落和短文主题的归纳。

  (2) 段落大意的归纳

  Although most universities in the United States are run on a semester system, which offers classes in the fall and spring, some schools observe a quarter system comprised of fall, winter, spring, and summer quarters. The academic year, September to June, is divided into three quarters of eleven weeks each beginning in September, January, and March, the summer quarter, June to August is composed of shorter sessions of varying length. Students may take advantage of the opportunity to study year around by enrolling in all four quarters, Most students begin their programs in the fall quarter, but they may enter at the beginning of any of the other quarters.

  A) Universities in the United States

  B) The Academic Year

  C) The Quarter System

  D) The Semester System

  本段由四个句子组成,各句大意分别为:1)有些学校实行四学期制;2)学年从9月至下年7月,前三个学期各长11周,夏季学期最短;3)学生可于任何学期注册入学;4)但大多数学生秋季入学。通过上述四句大意的归纳,可知本段落主要讲述美国大学的一种学期制,即Quarter System,答案为C。

  (3) 短文主题的归纳

  ①Proponents of father-attended childbirth assert that the father’s experience encourages him to develop a closer bond with his child…

  ②As a father of three teenagers from a previous marriage, one man compared his past experience as a new father to being in the delivery room during the birth of his newborn daughter…

  ③ Women report that they are much less anxious and more aware of what is going on when their husbands are with them when they give birth…

  A) The Father-Daughter Relationship

  B) Baby’s First View of Life

  C) Dad in the Delivery Room








  例:Apart from the obvious fact that rioters tend to come from the less well-off section of the community, there is no evidence that economic circumstances have any causal relationship with street violence.

  A) There is some evidence for relating economic circumstances to street violence.

  B) Not all the people in the community referred to are poor.

  C) There is no evidence that economic circumstances result from street viloence.

  D) All rioters come from the poorer section of the community.

  本例中,只有A可由原文推知,其中Apart from所引述的正是经济环境与暴力的一种相关性;C否定了这一相关性,故与原文相悖;D与原句中“rioters tend to come from…”的原意不符:“往往”不等于“总是”;B则是原文第一部分的重述,不属推论。


[不指定 07/05/01 16:30 | by admin ]




  所谓导入型,即作者先隐下主题思想不说,从别的细碎的地方谈起,渐渐接入正题。导入型的语句一般较为琐碎具体,甚至具体到某年某月。有时也纯为挑起读者的好奇心而设。如″American firms have a prob?鄄lem.″什么问题呢?作者只字不提。导入型语句尽管隐藏了主题思想,但文章的脉络、所涉及的范围依然清晰可见。如上句的举例,讨论的关键肯定在problem,范围局限在美国公司。



[不指定 07/04/26 10:39 | by admin ]
  Studies of birds may offer unique insights into sleep.Jerome M.Siegel of the UCLA says he wonders if birds’ halfbrain sleep“is just the tip of the iceberg(冰山)”.He speculates that more examples may turn up when we take a closer look at other species.
  Q:By “just the tip of the iceberg”(Line 2,Para.8),Siegel suggests that.
  A)halfbrain sleep has something to do with icy weather
  B)the mystery of halfbrain sleep is close to being solved
  C)most birds living in cold regions tend to be half sleepers
  D)halfbrain sleep is a phenomenon that could exist among other species
  答案为D)。根据引号内容很快找到原文相关部分,其后的内容必是对该问的解释。第二句中说加州大学洛杉矶分校的Ferome M.Siegel推测鸟类的半脑睡眠现象只是冰山露出来的一角。第三句说如果我们对其他物种作进一步认真仔细的观察,可能会发现更多的例证,所以D正确。因此考生只要理解第二句、第三句的意思即可选出正确答案。
  In fact, the average compensation benefit in America has climbed from 55 percent of the states; average weekly wages in 1972 to 97 percent today.But, as most studies show, every 10 percent increase in compensation benefits results in a 5 percent increase in the numbers of workers who file for claims.And with so much more money floating in the workers’ compensation system, it’s not surprising that doctors and lawyers have helped themselves to a large slice of the growing pie.
  Q: After 1972 workers’ compensation insurance in the U.S became more favorable to workers so that .
  A) the poverty level for a family of four went up drastically
  B) more money was allocated to their compensation system
  C) there were fewer legal barriers when they filed for claims
  D) the number of workers suing for damages increased
  答案为D)。根据题干中的“after 1972”可马上判断出线索在最后一段。这一段的大意是说自1972年后,越来越多的人因工伤索赔而获益,所以越来越多的人就进行索赔,那么也就有医生和律师也来分一杯羹。尤其第二句话提到:索赔获益每增加10个百分点,进行索赔的工人人数就增加了5个百分点,与D)一致。
  No woman can be too rich or too thin.This saying often attributed to the late Duchess(公爵夫人) of Windsor embodies much of the odd spirit of our times.Being thin is deemed as such a virtue.(2002年6月第26题)
  Q:In the eyes of the author,an odd phenomenon nowadays is that.
  A) the Duchess of Windor is regarded as a woman of virtue
  B) looking slim is a symbol of having a large fortune
  C) being thin is viewed as a much desired quality
  D) religious people are not necessarily virtuous
  答案为C)。事实细节题。本段第二句话中的“odd spirit”指的就是下面的一句话“Being thin is deemed as such a virtue”。选项C)中的viewed与句中的deemed均指thought之意;desired quality恰恰就是virtue的解释。
  Most systems are basically identical.The differences come in hardware—the way the computer accepts the driver’s request for directions and the way it presents the driving instructions.On most systems, a driver enters a desired address, motorway junction or point of interest via a touch screen or disc.But the Lexus screen goes a step further: you can point to any spot on the map screen and get directions to it.(2000年1月第23题)
  Q:Despite their varied designs, navigation computers used in cars.
  A) are more or less the same price
  B) provide directions in much the same way
  C) work on more or less the same principles
  D) receive instructions from the same satellites
  这些语气词有:always,the most, never, all, only, no, none, exclusively, hardly等,而选项中含有不十分肯定的语气词一般是正确选项。这些语气词有:
  may,often,usually,might,could,more or less, possible, not necessarily等。
  When school officials in Kalkaska, Michigan, closed classes last week, the media flocked to the story, portraying the town’s 2,305 students as victims of stingy(吝啬的)taxpayers.There is some truth to that; the propertytax rate here is onethird lower than the state average.But shutting their schools also allowed Kalkaska’s educators and the state’s largest teachers’ union, the Michigan Education Association, to make a political point.Their aim was to spur Passage of legislation  Michigan lawmakers are debating to increase the state’s share of school funding.
  Q: We learn from the Passage that schools in Kalkaska, Michigan, are funded .
  A) mainly by the state government
  B) exclusively by the local government
  C) by the National Education Association
  D) by both the local and state government
  快速阅读本段可知答案在A)、B)、D)选项中,选项A)和选项B)说得过于绝对,D)项用了both…and句型,所以D)为正确答案。但是,如果时间来得及,一定要到原文中验证答案。由本段第一句话中“students as victims of stingy taxpayers”和第二句话中提到的当地的税率较低这一点可知,当地的教育经费一部分来自于地方的税收;再由本段最后一句话中“the states share of school funding”可知,州政府也分担教育经费。故验证D)为正确答案。
  It is where prices and markets do not operate properly that this benign(良性的) trend begins to stumble, and the genuine problems arise.Markets cannot always keep the environment healthy.If no one owns the resource concerned, no one has an interest in conserving it or fostering it: fish is the best example of this.
  Q: The primary solution to environmental problems is.
  A) to allow market forces to operate properly
  B) to curb consumption of natural resources
  C) to limit the growth of the world population
  D) to avoid fluctuations in prices
  The other side of a state legal apparatus is a state military apparatus.While the one protects the individual from violence,the other sacrifices the individual to violence in the interests of the state.In war the state affirms its supreme power over the individuals within its own borders.War is not simply a trial by combat to settle disputes between states;it is the moment when the state makes its most powerful demands upon its people for their commitment,allegiance,and supreme sacrifice.Times of war test a community’s deepest religious and ethical commitments.
  Q:The work“allegiance”(Line 5, Para.3) is closest in meaning to.
  A) loyaltyB) objectivC) survivalD) motive
  答案为A)。解本题可用同类词关系进行判断。在“allegiance”前后的两个主词分别是commitment和 sacrifice,应能判断出这三个词相对于国家而言是同一类词,再利用排除法,不难选出正确答案A)。
  Groundbreaking research by two French geophysicists promises to shed some light on the mystery.Using 80 metres of deep sea sediment (沉淀物) core, they have obtained measurements lots of magneticfield intensity that span 11 polarity reversals and four million years.The analysis reveals that intensity appears to fluctuate with a clear, welldefined rhythm.Although the strength of the magnetic field varies irregularly during the short term, there seems to be an inevitable longterm decline preceding each polarity reversal.When the poles flip—a process that takes several hundred thousand years—the magnetic field rapidly regains its strength and the cycle is repeated.
  Q: The word “flip” (Line 5, Para. 2) most probably means “”.
  A) declineB. intensifyC. fluctuateD. reverse
  答案为D)。  这一题目是根据上下文判断词意的题。flip的意思是“快速翻转”,它所在的句子的意思是“当两极互换——这一过程需要上万年的时间——磁场会很快重新恢复它的强度,新的一轮循环又开始了。”因此在四个选项中: A.decline的意思是“拒绝;变小、变弱”,B.intensify的意思是“(使某物)变得更强烈、加剧”,C.fluctuate的意思是“(价格、数量等)涨落、波动”;D.reverse的意思是“使(某物)反转、倒退、颠倒”,例如:Writing is reversed in a mirror.写出来的字在镜子里是颠倒的。D的意思与flip最接近。
  We must recognize that environmental health issues do not stop at city limits, county lines, state or even federal boundaries.We can no longer afford to be tunnelvisioned in our approach.We must visualize issues from every perspective to make the objective decisions.We must express our views clearly to prevent media distortion and public confusion.
Q: The word “tunnelvisioned” (Line 2, Para. 4) most probably means “”.
A) narrowmindedB) blind to the facts
C) shortsightedD) able to see only one aspect
The researcher then studied the videotapes to analyse the matches in detail.Surprisingly,he found that errors were more likely when the referees were close to the incident.When the official got it right,they were,on average,17 meters away from the action.
  Q:The word“officials”(Line 4,Para 4)most probably refers to .
  A)the researchers involved in the experiment
  B)the inspectors of the football tournament
  C)the referees of the football tournament
  D)the observers at the site of the experiment
  答案是C)。定冠词出现处,一般来说,其所指示的对象已在上文出现过。因此the official暗示,其含义相当的某种人已在上文出现。根据上下文知,official是指上文刚提到的my  referees。
  You can begin to think of yourself as truly intelligent on the basis of how you choose to feel in the face of trying circumstances.The life struggles are pretty much the same for each of us.Everyone who is involved with other human beings in any social context has similar difficulties.Disagreements,conflicts and compromises are a part of what it means to be human.Similarly, money,growing old,sickness,deaths natural disasters and accidents are all events which present problems to virtually all human beings.But some people are able to make it,to avoid immobilizing depression and unhappiness despite such occurrences,while others collapse or have an N.B.D.Those who recognize problems as a human condition and don’t measure happiness by an absence of problems are the most intelligent kind of humans we know;also,the most rare.
  Q:In the last paragraph,the author tells us that.
  A)difficulties are but part of everyone’s life
  B)depression and unhappiness are unavoidable in life
  C)everybody should learn to avoid trying circumstances
  D)good feelings can contribute to eventual academic excellence
  I recently visited a great little college in New York where the campus has doubled its minority population in the last six years.I talked with an African American who has been a professor there for a long time,and she remembers that when she first joined the community,there were fewer than a handful of minorities on campus.Now ,all of us feel the university is better because of the diversity.
  Q:It can be inferred form the Passage that
  A)meritocracy can never be realized without diversity
  B)American political circles will not accept diversity
  C)it is unlikely that diversity will occur in the U.S media
  D)minorities can only enter the fields where no debate is heard about diversity
  These findings do not imply that urbanism makes little or no difference.If neighbors are strangers to one another, they are less likely to sweep the sidewalk of an elderly couple living next door or keep an eye out for young trouble makers.Moreover, as Wirth suggested, there may be a link between a community’s population size and its social heterogeneity(多样性).For instance, sociologists have found much evidence that the size of a community is associated with bad behavior including gambling, drugs, etc.Largecity urbanites are also more likely than their smalltown counterparts to have a cosmopolitan (见多识广者的) outlook, to display less responsibility to traditional kinship roles, to vote for leftist political candidates, and to be tolerant of nontraditional  religious  groups,  unpopular  political  groups,  and  socalled  undesirables. Everything considered, heterogeneity and unusual behavior seem to be outcomes of large population size.
  Q:It can be inferred from the Passage that the bigger a community is,.
   A) the better its quality of life
   B) the more similar its interests
   C) the more tolerant and openminded it is
   D) the likelier it is to display psychological symptoms of stress
  If environmental destruction results when people have either too little or too much, we are left to wonder how much is enough.What level of consumption can the earth support? When does having more cease to add noticeably to human satisfaction?
  Q: It can be inferred from the Passage that .
  A) human spiritual needs should match material affluence
  B) whether high consumption should be encouraged is still an issue
  C) how to keep consumption at a reasonable level remains a problem
  D) there is never an end to satisfying people’s material needs
  There are some phenomena you can count on, but the magnetic field, someday is not one of them.It fluctuates in strength, drifts from its axis, and every few 100,000 years undergoes—dramatic polarity reversal—a period when north pole becomes south pole and south pole becomes north pole.But how is the field generated and why is it so unstable?
  Groundbreaking research by two French geophysicists promises to shed some light on the mystery.Using 80 metres of deep sea sediment (沉淀物) core, they have obtained measurements lots of magneticfield intensity that span 11 polarity reversals and four million years.The analysis reveals that intensity appears to fluctuate with a clear, welldefined rhythm.Although the strength of the magnetic field varies irregularly during the short term, there seems to be an inevitable longterm decline preceding each polarity reversal.When the poles flip—a process that takes several hundred thousand years—the magnetic field rapidly regains its strength and the cycle is repeated.
  The results have caused a stir among geophysicists.The magnetic field is thought to originate from molten (熔化的) iron in the outer core, 3,000 kilometres beneath the earth’s surface.By studying mineral grains found in material ranging from rocks to clay articles, previous researchers have already been able to identify reversals dating back 170 million years, including the most recent switch 730,000 years ago.How and why they occur, however, has been widely debated.Several theories link polarity flips to external disasters such as meteor (陨星) impacts.But Peter Olson, a geophysicist at the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, says this is unlikely if the French researchers are right.In fact, Olson says intensity that predictably declines from one reversal to the next contradicts 90 percent of the models currently under study.If the results prove to be valid geophysicists will have a new theory to guide them in their quest to understand the earth’s inner physics.It certainly points the direction for future research.
  Q:Which of the following titles is most appropriate to the Passage?
  A) Polarity Reversal: A Fantastic Phenomenon of Nature
  B) Measurement of the Earth’s MagneticField Intensity
  C) Formation of the Two Poles of the Earth
  D) A New Approach to the Study of Geophysics
  答案是A)。浏览全文发现一些地质方面的词不断出现,“polarity reversal”差不多在每段都出现,而B)、C)、D)项只是文章涉及的细节,故选A)。
  A nineyearold schoolgirl singlehandedly cooks up a sciencefair experiment that ends up debunking (揭穿……的真相) a widely practiced medical treatment.Emily Rosa’s target was a practice known as therapeutic (治疗的) touch (TT for short),whose advocates manipulate patients’“energy field”to make them feel better and even,say some,to cure them of various ills.Yet Emily’s test shows that these energy fields can’t be detected,even by trained TT practitioners (行医者).Obviously mindful of the publicity value of the situation,Journal editor George Lundberg appeared on TV to declare,“Age does’t matter.It’s good science that matters,and this is good science.”
  Emily’s mother Linda Rosa,a registered nurse,has been campaigning against TT for nearly a decade.Linda first thought about TT in the late ’80s,when she learned it was on the approved list for continuing nursing education in Colorado.Its 100,000 trained practitioners (48,000 in the U.S.) don’t even touch their patients.Instead,they waved their hands a few inches from the patient’s body, pushing energy fields around until they’re in “balance.”TT advocates say these manipulations can help heal wounds, relieve pain and reduce fever.The claims are taken seriously enough that TT therapists are frequently hired by leading hospitals, at up to 70 an hour,to smooth patients’ energy,sometimes during surgery.
  Yet Rosa could not find any evidence that it works.To provide such proof,TT therapists would have to sit down for independent testing—something they haven’t been eager to do,even though James Randi has offered more than  1 million to anyone who can demonstrate the existence of a human energy field.(He’s had one taker so far.She failed.) A skeptic might conclude that TT practitioners are afraid to lay their beliefs on the line.But who could turn down an innocent fourthgrader? Says Emily:“I think they didn’t take me very seriously because I’m a kid.”
The experiment was straight forward:21 TT therapists stuck their hands,palms up,through a screen.Emily held her own hand over one of theirs—left or right—and the practitioners had to say which hand it was.When the results were recorded,they’d done no better than they would have by simply guessing.If there was an energy field,they couldn’t feel it.
  Q:What can we learn from the Passage?
  A)Some widely accepted beliefs can be deceiving.
  B)Solid evidence weighs more than pure theories.
  C)Little children can be as clever as trained TT practitioners.
  D)The principle of TT is too profound to understand.

  3.要会区分不同的观点,尤其要找出作者的观点。考生要注意文中出现的直接引语和间接引语,这些观点一般是说话人而非作者的观点。作者的观点一般用in my view, in my opinion, personally, I think,I hold等表现。
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