[置顶] 六级阅读:“两遍阅读法”获取高分

[不指定 07/09/18 14:37 | by admin ]

   在大学英语六级考试中,阅读理解占比大且对于其他题目来说也易得分,所以从阅读理解着手是最快捷的提高分数的方式:

  筑稳基础,重视词汇不常用的含义

  英语六级考查词汇不是像高考一样直接出现词汇或语法的单项选择题,而是把词汇放到阅读理解当中去考查,这样一来,考查的难度就增加了,考生单认识这个单词还不足以理解整篇文章。英语四六级考试的大纲词汇数量还是比较多的,考生如果没有完全掌握这些大纲词汇,那么考试的时候在阅读部分势必要感到很吃力,但是,通常考生把大纲词汇过滤一遍以后心里都会有一个大概的印象,可是考试的时候再遇到这些单词,按它们常用的词义来翻译似乎又是解释不通的,之所以会这样是因为许多常用词在特定文章语境中使用的可能是我们并不常见的含义,如果考生在复习词汇时没有注意这些不常用含义,在考试时遇到了就很容易造成理解错误而选错答案。

  合理培养做题习惯,避免浪费时间

  英语六级考试时,很多考生都会觉得时间紧迫,一不小心就答不完题,这其中很大一部分原因是在我们自身的,比如,有些考生在阅读时喜欢逐字逐句的翻译,这样虽然准确度较高,但是会浪费大量时间,最终导致考生得不偿失;还有一些考生在阅读时碰到一时不理解的句子就容易反复琢磨,重复阅读,其实这样并没有必要,一句话理解不清楚不会影响我们对整个文章的理解,做阅读只要抓住文章主要内容和每一题对应的文中关键句的含义就足够了。

  扩展知识面,了解热点信息

  近几年各种各样的考试都越来越喜欢紧跟时政,考查书本以外的很多知识,英语六级也不例外。在近几年的英语四六级考试中就曾出现过节约能源、经济危机、社交网站等紧跟时政热点的话题。所以这就要求我们的考生在复习时目光不能仅仅集中在英语练习题上,还要额外了解一点社会方方面面的知识,扩展自己的知识面才能更加轻松应对一路改革的英语六级。

 一、重新审视大纲要求

  要求考生阅读若干篇短文。每篇短文后有若干个问题。考生应根据文章内容得出最佳答案。
  选材原册
  1、题材广泛,可以包括人物传记、社会、文化等方面,但是所涉及的背景知识应能为学生所理解;
  2、体裁多样,可以包括说明文、议论文等;
  评析:
  在备考中,应该练习多题材的文章,包括生活话题、经济类话题、环境话题,以及还有热点话题等,熟悉各种题材的文章结构和作者的表述,特别要关注议论文的结构模式,把握议论文的逻辑顺序。
  阅读理解部分主要测试下述能力
  A.辨别和理解中心思想和重要细节
  1、理解明确表达的概念和细节、文章的总体结构以及句子和段落的关系 评析:细节题的考查方向
  2、理解隐含的表达意思(如判断、推理和总结等)评析:推论题的考查方向
  3、理解所读材料的主旨和大意(如找出能概括全文的要点等)评析:主旨题的考查方向
  4、理解作者的观点和态度 评析:态度题的考查方向
  5、理解词语(如根据上下文猜测词和短语的意思)、句间关系(如原因、结果、目的等)
  评析:猜词题的考查方向

  二、阅读过程四步走

  1、扫描题干,划出关键词。选项不要看,用时越短越好。
  2、通读全文,抓住中心。
  3、仔细审题,返回原文。关键:定位。
  定位的三大原则:
  (1)关键词定位原则:由题干出发,寻找题干中的关键词,首选大写字母、数字等,其次是表时间地点人物的词。
  (2)自然段定位原则:出题顺序与文章段落顺序大体一致。
  (3)出题点定位原则:答案一定蕴涵在有特殊标点符号、句式列举、强转折逻辑关系的地方。
  4、重叠选项,斟酌答案。
  (1)缩小范围的是答案。
  (2)扩大范围的不是答案。
  (3)原文和选项有交叉内容的不是答案。
  (4)不相关的不能选。即,只要选项中有文章中未出现内容就错。注意,将文章中的每一个选项带回文章一一查对,不要凭印象猜测。

  三、根据考纲解题型

  (一)五大解题思路

  题型一——细节题
  1、标志:针对6w1h提问
  2、作题的关键在于返回原文,不要凭印象作题,返回原文要有定位意识。
  3、细节题迷惑选项的常用手段:偷换概念、扩大范围、正反混淆、颠倒因果、常识判断(列举和文章无关的常识,尽管常识是对的,但文章中未提,也是错的)

  题型二——猜词题

  形式一:词汇题
  1、标志:在题干中明确指出原文的单词或词组,要求辨其意。
  2、关键:该单词认识与否并不重要,重要的是该单词的上下文。
  3、做题方法:在文章中寻找同义词词组;代入替换法。
  形式二:指代题
  1、标志:在题干中明确指出原文中某个代词,要求辨别其指代关系,即it, that, one
  2、做题方法:(1)首先返回原文定位此指代词,90%向上,10%向下,搜索其指代的词、词组或句子。(2)在四个选项中找出一个同意表达作为答案。

  形式三:句子理解题

  1、标志:在题干中明确指出原文中的某句话,要求理解其意思。
  2、关键:返回原文,对出题句进行语法、句法、词法的分析,精确了解其含义。
  3、注意:重要的不是上下文,而是该句本身。正确答案与原文是同义关系,与原文其他无关联,选项一般无绝对的判断,有绝对判断的则必错。

  题型三——推论题

  1、标志:infer imply
  2、整体思路:每个选项都列举了文章的一个事实(或错误事实),我们要找的是哪一个符合原文。
  3、如果四个选项之中都没明确提到,那么与原文意思最接近,所用推理步骤最少的就是正确答案。
  4. 尤其要重视话中有话的陈述句或比喻句或反语或长难句,这些地方一般是分散列举题出题所在。

 
  题型四——态度题

   1、标志:attitude
   2、作者态度只分三类(1)支持,赞同,乐观(2)客观,中立(3)反对,批评,怀疑,悲观。除此之外没有其他作者态度。有些选项一定不是答案indifferent, subjective(主观), biased, puzzling等
   3、识别作者态度有以下方法;(1)依据中心句推论(2)当作者态度未明确提出时,要找文章中带有褒贬意义的词(3)根据所举例子的正负来判断,只提一方,则不中立;两方均提,不管例子有多少,是否平衡,都中立。
   题型五——主旨题
   1、标志:best title, main idea, main problem, conclusion, best title, the writing purpose。
   2、方法:(1)要着重理解首末段,首末句(2)若主旨在文章中间出现或前后段意转折时,应提高警惕(3)若段中出现转折时,该转折句很可能就是主题句 (4)作者有意识重复的观点往往是主旨(5)首段出现疑问句时,对该疑问的解答就是主旨(6)主旨出现时常伴有如下词:but, however, therefore, in short
   3、选项特点:(1)正确选项一般不含细节信息,并不含过分肯定或绝对意义的词(2)错误选项的特点是就事论事,或细节信息鲜明,或过于笼统。

   (二)微观阅读助理解

   微观阅读之一——标点的运用

   冒号:前后是从抽象到具体的过程,如把冒号前的看懂,则后面的不看。
   分号:分号前后是并列关系,只看其中一句即可。
   破折号:破折号之后是补充说明成分时跳过不读。
   引号:引号有三个作用,引语,反语,强调。知道观点则引语不看,反语反看。
   括号:括号有两个作用,补充说明,解释说明生词。

   微观阅读之二——长难句的解析

   1、从句又多又长,一主带多从。应对方法:先抓主干,找出长难句中最核心的主谓宾,再层层扩展,理解。
   2、主句或从句中带有长长的插入成分。应对方法:读句子时先找主干,不要理会插入语。如果插入语交代说话人身份或某话是谁说的,或修饰、解释、补充前面所言,跳过不看。
   3、分词状语或独立主格的干扰。应对方法:主句最重要的特征是有完整的主谓宾结构,有独立的谓语。一个看似句子的结构,如果没有独立的谓语,那它不是句子,而是分词状语或独立主格。
   4、有时上面三种情况混合。应对方法:从前向后,先找独立的谓语部分,从而区分出主语和分词状语,再根据从句的连词(because, as, when)区分出主句和从句,然后层层扩展理解,插入语在哪个层次就放在哪个层次理解,甚至跳过不看。
   5、从语法上看常见长难句语法结构:形式主语或宾语,强调结构,非限制性定语从句,同位语从句,倒装结构,虚拟语气省略句。
  Yet, according to one authority on the subject, we can each probably recognise more than 1,000 faces, the majority of which differ in fine details. This, when one comes to think of it, is a tremendous feat, though, curiously enough, relatively little attention has been devoted to the fundamental problems of how and why we acquire this gift for recognizing and remembering faces. Is it an inborn property of our brains, or an acquired one? As so often happens, the experts tend to differ.

  The gift of being able to describe a face accurately is a rare one, as every experienced police officer knows to his cost. As the Lancet put it recently:” When we try to describe faces precisely words fail us, and we resort to identikit (拼脸型图) procedures.”

  Thus, some argue that it is inborn, and that there are “special characteristics about the brain’s ability to distinguish faces”. In support of this these they note how much better we are at recognizing a face after a single encounter than we are, for example, in recognizing an individual horse. On the other hand, there are those, and they are probably in the majority, who claim that the gift is an acquired one.

  But of all these, sight is predominant. Formed at the very beginning of life, the ability to recognize faces quickly becomes an established habit, and one that is, essential for daily living, if not necessarily for survival. How essential and valuable it is we probably do not appreciate until we encounter people who have been deprived of the faculty.

  The arguments in favour of this latter view, it must be confessed, are impressive. It is a habit that is acquired soon after birth. Watch, for instance, how a quite young baby recognises his member by sight. Granted that his other senses help – the sound other voice, his sense of smell, the distinctive way she handles him.
  This unfortunate inability to recognize familiar faces is known to all, but such people can often recognize individuals by their voices, their walking manners or their spectacles. With typical human ingenuity many of these unfortunate people overcome their handicap by recognizing other characteristic features.

  1. It is stated in the passage that ______.
  A. it is unusual for a person to be able to identify a face satisfactorily
  B. the ability to recognize faces unhesitatingly is an unusual gift
  C. quit a few people can visualize faces they have seen
  D. few people can give exact details of the appearance of a face

  2. What is the first suggested explanation of the origin of the ability?
  A. It is one of the characteristics peculiar to human beings.
  B. It is acquired soon after birth.
  C. It is something we can do from the very moment we are born.
  D. It is learned from our environment and experiences.

  3. What the author feels strange about is that _______.
  A. people have the tremendous ability to recognize more than 1,000 faces
  B. people don’t think much of the problem of how and why we acquire the ability to recognize and remember faces
  C. people don’t realize how essential and valuable it is for them to have the ability to recognize faces
  D. people have been arguing much over the way people recognize and remember faces

  4. According to the passage, how important is the ability to recognize faces?
  A. It is useful in daily life but is not necessarily essential.
  B. It is absence would make normal everyday life impossible.
  C. Under certain circumstances we could not exist without it.
  D. Normal social life would be difficult without it.

  5. This passage seems to emphasize that ______.
  A. the ability to recognize individuals is dependent on other senses as well as sight
  B. sight is indispensable to recognizing individuals
  C. the ability to recognise faces is a special inborn ability of the brain
  D. the importance of the ability of recognize faces in fully appreciated by people.

【答案见下页】
The Reader’s digest investigation asked Americans which was the biggest threat to the nation’s future—big business, big labor or big government. A whopping 67 percent replied “ big government”
  Opinion researchers rarely see such a vast change in public attitude. When put in historical perspective, from the time of Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal to the present, the fallen status of government as a protector and benefactor is extraordinary. We’ve returned to the instinctive American wariness of Washington so common before the Great Depression.
  In our poll, taken before the November elections, the overwhelming majority of our respondents wanted to stop or roll back the impact of government. In answer to another question posed by The Digest, 79 percent said they wanted either no more than the current level of government services and taxes, or less government and lower taxes.
  “It seems to me that we in the middle class bear most of the burden,” says Jone Nell Norman, 61, a nurse in Dyersburg, Tenn., who often wonders about the government’s judgement in spending her money.
  Of Americans in our sample, 62 percent believe that politician’s ethics and honesty have fallen. And what about Congress? Is it doing a good job? Or do members “ spend more time thinking about their political futures than passing good legislation?” Across generations, a thumping 89 percent thought the latter. “Congress always seems to be screwing up,” says one young Xer.
  However, Americans are satisfied with their own lives and jobs. Four of five respondents were “completely “ or “ somewhat “ satisfied. The figures held up across all ages – including Xer, whom many pundits have claimed are pessimistic about their future.
  Looking deeper at jobs, we found 70 percent of Americans believe they are about where they should be, given their talents and effort. This is an issue where age always makes a difference, since older people, who are more established in their jobs tend to be more satisfied, while younger workers are still trying to find the right niche. Sure enough, Xers scored 65 percent, about five points below average.



  1.”Xers” is repeated several times to refer to
  A. accusers B. younger respondents
  C. college students D. blue-collar workers

  2. The U. S. government status in the public mind before the Great Depression ____.
  A. was regarded as quite normal
  B. used to be very low
  C. remained a difficult problem for the federal government
  D. reminded people of the principles laid down by Washington

  3. The 61-years-old nurse Norman is mentioned in the article to show that ____.
  A. the government has cheated her out of her money
  B. it is hard for her to earn a living
  C. even a retired nurse has lost faith in the government
  D. the more the government does the greater stake tax – payers’ money will be put at

  4.”Screwing up “ in paragraph 5 may be paraphrased as ____.
  A. indecisive in making decisions B. benefiting the nation in earnest
  C. making a mess of everything D. debating hotly

  5.”Political future “ in paragraph 5 may be paraphrased as ____.
  A. the future of the whole nation B. people’s well – being in the future
  C. a position of higher rank D. awareness of consistency in policies

【答案见下页】
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