【题目内容】:


     中医(Traditional Chinese Medicine)是中华文化不可分割的一部分,为振兴华夏做出了巨大的贡献。如今,中医和西医(western medicine)在中国的医疗保健领域并驾齐驱。中医以其独特的诊断手法、系统的治疗方式和丰富的典籍材料,备受世界瞩目。中国的中医事业由国家中医药管理局(State Administration of TCM and Pharmacology)负责。现在国家已经出台了管理中医的政策、法令和法规,引导并促进这个新兴产业的研究和 开发。在定义上,中医是指导中国传统医药理论和实践的一种医学,它包括中医疗法、中草药(herbalogy)、针 灸(acupuncture )、推拿(massage)和气功(Qigong)


【参考答案】

 

  Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is an integral part of Chinese culture. It has made great contributions to the prosperity of China. Today both TCM and western medicine are being used in providing medical and health services in China. TCM, with its unique diagnostic methods, systematic approach, abundant historical literature and materials, has attracted a lot of attention from the international community. In China, TCM is under the administration of State Administration of TCM and Pharmacology. National strategies, laws and regulations governing TCM are now in place to guide and promote the research and development in this promising industry. TCM is defined as a medical science governing the theory and practice of traditional Chinese medicine. It includes Chinese medication, herbalogy, acupuncture, massage and Qigong


【难点精析】


  1.不可分割的一部分:可译为an integral part

  2.为振兴华夏做出了巨大的贲献:可译为has made great contributions to the prosperity of China,其中“华夏”即“中国”或“中华”,可直接译为China; “振兴”此处翻译成了名词形式prosperity,还可译为revitalization;“做出了 巨大的贡献”可译为 has made great contributions

  3.并驾齐驱:此处指两者(中医和西医)都得以应用,可简单地翻译为both are being used

  4.独特的诊断手法、系统的治疗方式和丰富的典籍材料:三个并列的名词短语,可分别译为unique I diagnostic methods, systematic approachabundant historical literature and materials; “典籍材料”可理解为历史文献资料,翻译为historical literature and materials

  5.引导并促进这一新兴产业的研究和开发:“引导”译为guide; “促进”可译为promote,还可译为facilitatefurther; “新兴产业,,可译为promising industry,还可译为new industryemerging industry

  6.中医疗法:译为Chinese medication

【题目内容】:


     中欧经济贸易合作取得了可喜的成果。欧盟已经成为中国的重要经贸伙伴,是中国最大的技术供应方、第三大贸易伙伴和第五大实际投资方。2001年,中欧贸易达到766亿美元,比上一年增长11%,尤其是中国从 欧盟的进口增长了 15.8%。我非常赞赏欧中(Europe-China Business Association)与比中经贸理事会 (Belgium-Chinese Economic and Commercial Council)为发展中欧关系所做出的努力。中欧经济贸易合作具有广阔的前景。中欧经济具有很强的互补性,在贸易、投资、科技等领域具有很大的合作潜力。



【参考答案】


  China-EU economic and trade cooperation has yielded heartening fruits. The EU has now become an important economic and trade partner of China, working as the largest technology supplier, the third largest trading partner and the fifth largest actual investor in China. Bilateral trade reached 76.6 billion dollars in 2001, achieving an 11% increase compared to the previous year. In particular, Chinas imports from the EU grew by 15.8%. I highly appreciate the efforts by the Europe-China Business Association and the Belgium-Chinese Economic and Commercial Council for developing China-EU ties. China-EU trade and economic cooperation is endowed with a promising future. The two economies are strongly complimentary to each other and hence enjoy huge potential for cooperation in trade, investment, science and technology areas.


【难点精析】

 

  1.中欧经济贸易合作取得了可喜的成果:EU=European Union,表示欧盟;“取得了”可译为has got,但稍显生硬,yield fruit意为“结果,取得成果”,用在此处更为恰当;“可喜的”可译为heartening,还可译为^ promising

  2.第三大贸易伙伴和第五大实际投资方:“最大”用the largest来表示,“第几大”则可译为the+序数词+largest,因此此处“第三大”译为the third largest; “第五大”译为the fifth largest。“贸易伙伴”译为trading partner; “实际投资方”译为actual investor

  3. 766亿美元:应译为76.6 billion dollarsbillion意为“10亿”,而不是“1 亿”。

  4.增长了15.8%:可译为grew by 15.8%,还可译为increased by 15.8%increase的反义词为decrease,二者用 法相同,后接具体的百分比时,要与介词by连用。

  5.发展中欧关系:“关系”还可译为relationship,但tie表示的“关系”比relationship的情感色彩更强烈一些, ; 意为“紧密关系”,此处原文中虽没有提及“紧密”,但很显然是要发展中欧的紧密关系,故译成tie更贴合文意。

  6.具有很强的互补性:可译为are strongly complimentary to each other complimentary意为“互补的”。

  7.具有很大的合作潜力:“具有”此处译为enjoy显得生动,带有较强的感情色彩。potential后应与介词for 搭配。

【题目内容】:


 

  要了解中国文化,就应该对中国的戏曲文化有所了解。中国地方戏种类很多,其中京剧是一个具有代表性的剧种。作为一个独立的剧种,京剧的诞生大约是在1840年至1860年。京剧是在吸收其他地方戏营养的基础上形成的。京剧有明确的角色分工;在念白上用北京方言;在音乐上以胡琴为主要伴奏乐器。由于京剧是在融合各种地方戏之精华的基础上形成的,所以它不仅为北京的观众所钟爱,也受到全国人民的喜爱。


【参考答案】


 To understand the Chinese culture, you have to know something about the Chinese opera culture. In China, there are many kinds of local operas, among which Peking Opera is a representative one. As an independent opera form, Peking Opera was approximately born between 1840 and 1860. Peking opera originated from absorbing the essentials of other local operas. In Peking Opera there is a clear division of roles; the spoken parts are in Beijing dialect; and huqin, is the main accompaniment instrument. Since Peking Opera has combined the cream of various local operas, it is enjoyed not only by Beijing audience, but also by people all over the country.


【难点精析】


 

  1.要了解中国文化,就应该对中国的戏曲文化有所了解:该句没有给出明确的主语,因而在翻译时要注意:增译主语you。“中国的戏曲文化”可译为the Chinese opera culture

  2.中国地方戏种类很多,其中京剧是一个具有代表性的剧种:该句在翻译时可以采用非限定性定语从句结构。该句可译为:In China, there are many kinds of local operas, among which Peking Opera is a representative one.注意此处为了避免在前后分句中重复使用名词opera而在后半句中使用了名词性替代词 one

  3.京剧是在吸收其他地方戏营养的基础上形成的:“在……的基础上形成”如果直接译为be formed on the I basis of...会稍显生硬,因而可以灵活译为originate from...。“地方戏”可以直译为local opera

  4.念白:“念白”指的是中国戏曲中人物的独白或者两者的对话,因而此处在翻译时可将其灵活译为the I spoken parts

  5.胡琴:这一特有名词在英文中并没有直接对应的词汇或表达,因而可以采用汉语拼音表示。

  6.它不仅为北京的观众所钟爱,也受到全国人民的喜爱:“不仅 也 ”常用not onlybut also…来表达。此处句中的“钟爱”和“喜爱”同义,在翻译后半部分内容时可以将与前半部分重复的内容省略,故该部分内容可译为:it is enjoyed not only by Beijing audience, but also by people all over the country

 

【题目内容】:


  北京有无数的胡同(hutong)。平民百姓在胡同里的生活给古都北京带来了无穷的魅力。北京的胡同不仅仅是平民百姓的生活环境,而且还是一门建筑艺术。通常,胡同内有一个大杂院,房间够410个家庭的差不多20 口人住。所以,胡同里的生活充满了友善和人情味。如今,随着社会和经济的飞速发展,很多胡同被新的高楼大厦所取代。但愿胡同可以保留下来。


【参考答案】


    In Beijing, there are numerous hutongs. The life of common people in hutongs brings endless charm to the ancient capital, Beijing. The hutong in Beijing is not only the living environment of common people but also a kind of architecture. Usually, there is a courtyard complex inside hutong, with rooms shared by 4 to 10 families of about 20 people. Therefore, life in hutongs is full of friendliness and genuine humanity. Nowadays, with rapid social and economic development, many hutongs are replaced by new tall buildings. I hope hutongs can be preserved.


【难点精析】


  1.带来了无穷的魅力:翻译为bring endless charm to。

  2.汉语习惯于用并列的散句或短语来表达一个语境,而英文习惯上用整句表述,句内不太重要的信息会用介词短语或从句来补充说明,如本段中“胡同内有一个大杂院,房间够4到10个家庭的差不多20口人住”是:两个并列关系的汉语短句,翻译成英文时可将第二句用with介词结构表达出来,起补充说明的作用。

  3.充满友善和人情味:翻译为full of friendliness and genuine humanity。

  4.随着社会和经济的飞速发展:翻译为with rapid social and economic development,也是with介词短语的应用,在句中作伴随状语。

 

 

【题目内容】:


  中国是世界上最大的发展中国家,人口约占世界总人口的22%。在过去相当长的时期里,由于诸多原因,贫困一直困扰着中国。20世纪80年代中期,中国农村绝大多数地区凭借自身的发展优势,经济得到快速增长,但少数地区由于经济、社会、历史、自然等方面的制约,发展相对滞后。中国政府在致力于经济和社会全面发展的进程中,在全国范围内实施了以解决贫困人口温饱问题为主要目标的有计划、有组织的大规模扶贫开发,极大地缓解了贫困现象。


【参考答案】


  China is the largest developing country in the world and its population accounts for about

22 percent of the world’s total. For a long period of its history, China has been plagued by

poverty for various reasons. In the mid-1980s, the economy of an overwhelming majority

of the rural areas in China grew dramatically by virtue of their own advantages, but a small

number of areas still lagged behind because of the constraints of their economic, social,

historical, and natural conditions. The Chinese government, while working on all-round

economic and social development, has nationwide implemented a large-scale program

for development-oriented poverty relief in a planned and organized way.

With the main objective of helping poverty-stricken people solve the food and

clothing problems,this program has gone a long way toward alleviating poverty.


【难点精析】


  1.发展中国家:英语中对应的表达为developing country,该句结构简单,直译即可。2.人口约占世界总人口的……:此句紧接上文,和前面一个分句共享一个主语China,为了指代清楚并且避免重复,此处的“人口”可译为its population。表达“(数量、比例上)占”有一个常用的词组account for。“世界总人口”如果直译的话是the worlds total population或者the total population of the world,但是由于该分句的主语中已经出现了一次population,故此处可将total活用作名词,意为“总数”。

  3.在过去相当长的时期里:该分句如果直译的话可译为for a long time in the past,但是根据语境,此处“相当长的时期”指的是“中国历史中的一个很长的时期”,又由于该分句所在句的主语随后紧接着出现,因而可以意译为for a long period of its history。

4.由于诸多原因:此处较为简单,可以有多种译法。“由于”可以用because of, due to, out of来表达,也可以用一个简洁的单词for。“诸多”的表达方式也有很多,如many, various, a lot of, lots of等。因而该分句可简洁地译为for various reasons。

5.贫困一直困扰着……:表达“被贫困所困扰”较为常用的译法是be plagued by,由于此处表达的是过去已经发生并且其影响持续到现在的一种状态,因而注意时态要采用现在完成时。此处可译为…has been plagued by poverty。

  6. 20世纪80年代中期……发展相对滞后:该句较长,翻译时要注意平衡句子的结构。“经济发展较快”中的“经济”指的是“中国农村绝大多数地区的经济”,在翻译时可以照此调整一下句子的语序。“滞后”常用lag behind 来表达。

7.中国政府在致力于……缓解了贫困现象:该句内容较多,翻译时可以根据语义将该长句拆分成两个独立的句子,即:“中国政府在致力于经济和社会全面发展的进程中,在全国范围内实施了有计划、有组织的大规模扶贫开发。扶贫开发以解决贫困人口的温饱问题为主要目标,极大地缓解了贫困现象。” “致力于”可以用短语work on来表达。“扶贫开发”实际上是一个项目,因而可灵活译为a program for development oriented poverty relief。

 

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