When we mention China’s ancient civilization,we think

  of the Four Great Inventions--paper,gunpowder,the compass

  and printing.which have had an immeasurable impact to 1.

  the development of world culture,military affairs,and

  communications and transportation.The science and technology

  of ancient China no doubt occupy a very important and 2.

  prominent position in the scientific and technological history

  of the world.yet modern science and technology did not

  originate in China.

  Why is that modem science and technology did not 3.

  originate in China? Chinese scholars specialize in the history 4.

  of natural sciences offer an answer.In brief,there are four reasons。

  First,industry and commerce were restricted in feudal China,

  which closed their borders to the outside world and inhibited the 5.

  development of areas of science and technology such as

  mechanics,mathematics,navigational technology and machine

  building.which were related with industry and commerce 6.

  Second.in terms of philosophy,Confucianism(儒学)was the

  respected school of thought,and it was unable to provide 7.

  philosophical guidance for the further development of science and

  technology after the end of the Ming Dynasty.Third,school

  curricula was limited to the Confucian classics,which downplayed 8.

  (不予重视)technology and crafts and touched on the sciences 9.

  Fourth,Confucian scholars were contented and conservative,

  believed their imperial court to be the supreme court granted by Heaven 10.

  and themselves the only civilized and respectable people in the world.


  What are the drawbacks or difficulties associated with

  intrapreneurship(内部创业)programs or strategies? Some

  managers are not happy about giving up the control they are

  used to have.Other managers may be willing,but their 1.

  companies have down—sized.Those managers may be do more of 2.

  the work above or below their level than they had been doing. 3.

  Now they are overworked,stress managers,and they may not Want 4.

  to hear new ideas that could just complicate their jobs even far. 5.

  The major problem that often haunts intrapreneurship is that

  results are expected very quickly.It takes time for a company to 6.

  develop the fight atmosphere and most appropriate support 7.

  structures for intrapreneuring.Sometimes a company gets impatient

  and need,Koch says,“to swallow a patience pill.”Lastly, 8.

  sometimes it is difficult for an intrapreneur to hear that the company

  has decided to pursue her of his idea;the person may continue 9.

  working on the idea anyway.

  With all the possible drawbacks,intrapreneurship has a

  foothold in business today.Many products now on the market

  owe their existence on companies Who recognized and nurtured 10.

  the talent within their own walls.


  Optimism and pessimism are both powerful forces,and

  each of us must choose which we want to shape our outlook

  and our expectations.There are enough good and bad in 1.

  everyone’s life--ample sorrow and happiness,sufficient joy

  and pain——find a rational basis for either optimism or pessimism 2.

  We can choose to laugh and cry,bless or curse.It’s our decision: 3.

  From which perspective do we want to view life? Will we look up in

  hope or down in despair?

  I believe the upward look.I choose to highlight the positive and 4.

  slip right over the negative.I am an optimist by choice as much

  as in nature.Sure.I know that sorrow exists.I am in my 70s now, 5.

  and I have lived through rather than one crisis. But when all is said 6.

  and done.I find that the good in life far outweighs the bad.

  An optimistic attitude is not a luxury;nor it’s a necessity. 7.

  The way you look at life will determine how you feel,how you

  perform,and how well you will get along with other people.Converse, 8.

  negative thoughts,attitudes,and expectations fed on themselves; 9.

  they become a self—fulfilling prophecy. Pessimism creates a dismal

  place where no one wants to live in. 10.


  There are advantage for students to work while 1. _______

  studying at school. One of them was that 2. _______

  they can earn money. For the most part, 3. _______

  students working to earn money for their own 4. _______

  use. Earning their own money allow them 5. _______

  to spend on anything as if they please. 6. _______

  They would have to ask their parents for 7. _______

  money or for permission to do things by 8. _______

  the money. Some students may also to save 9. _______

  up for our college or future use. 10. _______


  At first I was not quite willing to sit down and

  watched the 90-minute football match. Usually I just 1. _______

  checked the results because I thought that was dull 2. _______

  to watch a game in which players kicked a ball each 3. _______

  other. Therefore, my father loves football. During the 4. _______

  World Cup in 2002, my dad stays up late just to watch 5. _______

  his favorite sport. Seeing his strong interest in this 6. _______

  game of 22 men run after a ball, I decided to sit down 7. _______

  to watch the game. I found the game excited, and my 8. _______

  dad explained for the rules. We shared our joy. Football 9. _______

  is not too badly as long as I watch it with my dad!10. _______


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