英语六级综合包括完形填空和短文改错,由于前几次连续多年出了改错,不少考生对完形填空缺乏复习和练习,导致遇到完形填空的时候措手不及,也影响了总体成绩。

  完形主要考三方面的内容:单词,短语词组和逻辑。我通过对历年完形考试真题的分析,发现在所考察的20个选择题中,一般来说,对单词方面的考察占据了15—17道题之多,而短语词组和逻辑相对考察得较少。所以在接下来的两周我们应该着重准备完形当中考察单词的题目:

  首先,大家要在两周之内把六级要求的单词再进行复习。这个复习并不是简单地把每个单词是什么中文意思再记一次,而是要针对完形如何考察单词的方面来复习。完形考察单词主要在三方面:难词辨析,近义词辨析和形近词辨析。现在就这三方面给大家讲一讲如何准备:

  难词辨析:就是要会认出选项中的单词分别是什么意思,而且这四个单词相互间没有联系,再根据它所在的句子中的意思选出正确答案,例如:

  The Pentagon built the network for military contractors and universities doing military research to __72__ information。(2009年6月)

  72. A. exchange B. bypass C. switch D. interact

  四个选项的意思分别是:A. exchange互换;B. bypass绕过;C. switch转变;D. interact相互作用。句子意思是:五角大楼建立网络是为了便于军事承包商和做军事研究的大学能够互相交流信息。因此,只有 A. exchange才符合句意。
  由此可见,对于这种题同学们唯一能做的就是能再利用这两周时间把以前所背的所有六级单词尽可能地再多看看。
  近义词辨析:四个选项的意思相近,但各自意思的侧重点或用法不同,仍然根据句意选出最符合的答案,例如:
  For example, most universities that __76__ the NSF network had intracampus computer networks. (2009年6月)
  76. A. joined B. attached C. participated D. involved

  四个选项的意思都与“联系”有关,各自意思的侧重点和用法分别是:
  A. joined: 加入; join sth./sb.:加入到某事物或某人中;
  B. attached: 将某物系于另一物上;attach A to B:将A系于B上;
  C. participated: 参加;participate in sth.:参加某事物;
  D. involved:牵涉;A be involved in B:A牵涉进了B中。

  句子的意思是:例如,加入到NSF网络中的大部分大学有校际电脑网络。因此,A. joined是最佳选项。:
  从上面这道题我们可以得知,只是记住单词的意思还不够,对于意思相近的单词一定要将它们整理出来,辨析它们的意思的侧重点和用法的不同。如果同学们对单词的意义已经很了解了,在接下来的两周应该做到以上这点。

  形近词辨析:大部分考察的是同根或同缀,但意义却相差较大的单词,例如:
  Eisenhower’s interstate highways __64__ the nation together in new ways and __65__ major economic growth by making commerce less __66__。(2009年6月)

  66. A.competitive B.comparative C.exclusive D.expensive
  以上四个单词都有同样的形容词后缀:—ive, 并且在拼写上A,B与C,D分别相似,但这四个单词的意思却截然不同:A.competitive:竞争性的,有竞争力的;B.comparative:比较的,相对的;C.exclusive:独家的,专门的;D.expensive:昂贵的。句子的意思是:艾森豪威尔的州际公路将国民以新的方式联系在了一起,并且通过使交往变得没那么昂贵,而促进了主要的经济增长。所以答案选D.expensive。
  这道题给我们的信息是在复习单词时,对于形近的词要特别区分,以免混淆,而把本应做对的题做错。
  因此,在最后两星期同学们应把复习单词的重点放在以上三方面,这样不仅可以更有效地记忆单词,也能对更好地做题有很大的帮助。
  另外,历年的完形真题也是我们要着重复习的地方,因为通过对以往考过的六级完形真题的分析,发现有很多地方都是考了又考的,例如:
  So Germany was asking bright young__79__to leave their country, culture and families…(2008年6月)
  79. A.dwellers B.citizens C.professionals D.amateurs
  答案:C。
  It began as a military communication system, which expanded into a government-funded __80__ research network. (2009年6月)
  80. A.citizen B.civilian C.amateur D.resident
  答案:B。采集者退散
  注意,以上两道真题的选项有几个是相同的,这样的例子还有很多,同学们只要多练历年的真题,特别是练从改革以来的,可以安排在这两周来做,如果09年12月考的是完形,相信同学们一定会因此受益的。
  以上就是对于完形在剩余的两周应该着重注意些什么。
  总之,在最后两周,同学们如果能按照以上的建议去做,就会发现,其实,六级完形并没有大家想象地难以应付,说不定还能为我们最后的总分贡献不少。
  最后,我在这里真诚地祝大家顺利通过六级!
   英语六级考试中完型填空的特点在于它的综合性,也就是说,它对于考生的阅读能力,语法分析能力,词汇熟练掌握程度都进行了考查,因而具有相当的难度。

英语六级考试中的完型填空,按照大纲的规定,是在一篇题材熟悉、难度适中的短文(约200词)内留有20个空白,每个空白为一题,每题有四个选择项,要求考生在全面理解内容的基础上选择一个最佳答案,使短文的意思和结构恢复完整。下面我们来进行具体分析。

一、考查内容及相应的知识技巧

1.阅读及对文意的把握

完型填空的题干是以文章的形式出现的,它首先考查的就是考生的阅读能力。具体地说,这种阅读能力,主要指的是阅读速度以及对文章脉络的把握。
首先是阅读的速度。完型填空要求考生要有快速阅读的能力。在考试中,通常应该通读文章以了解其大意,而通读的时间一般应当限制在3分钟左右。如果时间过长,会使我们获取的信息淡化或者忘却,同时也不利于文章脉络的把握。

阅读速度的培养,说到底是一个阅读习惯的问题。我们在平常的英语学习中,已经养成了自己的阅读习惯,而习惯是否科学,则要进行分析。一般来说,默读,也即仅仅用眼睛获取信息,不出声,嘴巴也不动,是可以获得较高的速度的。同时,要注意阅读时精力高度的集中和正确的姿势,避免多余的身体动作。
其次是对文章脉络的把握。要在快速阅读中很好地把握文章的脉络,就必须在读的同时,对于每一个意群(通常是一个自然段)的大意进行概括。概括应尽量简短有利于记忆。譬如下面的一段话:

Data on a specific flight itinerary and the individual’sleep ___76___ are used to produce a trip guide with ___77___ on exactly when to be exposd to bright light(1999年6月CET6)。这段话的意思是“在基于具体的飞行线路和个人的睡眠模式编写的旅行指南上有关于何时受光的说明“。我们在概括的时候,可以简记为“指南的编写依据及内容“或者干脆就是“指南一依据一内容”。了解了每个意群的意义之后,将你的概括串起来,就是文章的脉络了。需要注意的是,对于衔接词,应该有充分的注意。例如so that。however,but等词。遇到它们时,可以做一些记号.以免忽略。它们对于文章的脉络是有重要意义的。

2.词汇的掌握词汇是英语学习的基础,也是完型填空题考查的重点。

在完型填空的20道题中,直接考查词汇的占了绝大部分。对于词汇的学习,需要注意的问题如下:
首先是如何记单词的问题。就我的经验而言,通过阅读的形式记忆,同时通过做词汇题的形式来加深对于重点词汇的印象是比较好的选择。当然,背诵词汇手册也是必要的,但应该占用不太多的时间。

其次是记忆到什么程度的问题。我认为,一般的词汇只要遇到时了解其意思就可以了,不需要对它们的拼写过分关注。重点的词汇则要特别注意。至于什么是重点词汇,你在平时的练习中接触较多的就是,这就要求我们对平时的练习要注重,要通过它掌握一定的知识。

3.语法
英语的语法是比较简单的。我们要注意的是一些特殊的语法规则。例如虚拟句的时态选择等。我的学习方法是将遇到的此类规则加以总结并及时强化记忆,这样或许就足够了。还有一种做法是将遇到的语法考题加以摘抄记忆,效果也是不错的。

二、历年试题分析和总结

在准备六级考试时,一种有效的方法,就是对所做过的题目进行分析和总结。及时的分析和总结,可以使我们免于题海战术的苦恼。大学英语考试所涵盖的知识点,其总量和可考查的内容是有限的,进行必要的总结工作,可以达到尽快掌握可考知识点的效果。
1.分析和总结的对象
对于完型填空题目的分析和总结,主要是集中在词汇方面,其次是语法方面。分析和总结的目的,是对准备过程中所遇到的知识点加以集中化。就分析和总结的对象而言,首先是历年的真题,其次是信度较高的模拟试题,也就是我们平时所说的名家所出的试题集。
2.分析和总结的方法

简而言之,分析,主要是针对自己所做错的题目,以及虽然偶然做对了实际上却仍然不明就里的题目。分析的步骤如下:首先,注明考点,找出出错的原因;其次,写下与之有关的可能会考到的知识点,或者写下自己的体会。我们来举个例子,如1999年6月CET6第78题:

When the trip guide calls ___78___ bright light you should spend time outdoors if possibe。四个选项分别是up,off,on,for。本题的正确答案为for。意思是“要求,请求”。本题的考点是动词与介词的搭配。如果误选了其他项,错误的原因就是没有弄懂call for,call up,call off,call on的区别。四项的意义分别是“召唤“,“取消”“号召,访问”和“要求,请求”。然后对本题加以引申,列举出call可能的与其他介词的搭配,这样,就完成了一次分析。至于总结,那就更加简单,你可以将题目及其分析按照各自的考点分门别类的抄下来,这就是总结了。
分析与总结是十分重要的。你所分析和总结的东西不仅可以成为以后做题的参考,在复习的最后阶段,还可以作为复习的主要对象。而且,一般说来,对曾经做错的题目分析总结之后,再犯同样的错误的可能性就会大大降低了。
3.六级考试常见词汇辨析小结
下面的一些近意词汇,在平时的练习中是要认真掌握
      administer, dominate, control, rule;
  abolish, cancel;
  apt, likely;
  beforehand, previously, ahead;
  flower, bloom, blossom;
  clasp, grasp, grip, clutch;
  clothes, dress, cloth;
  disclose, expose;
  emigrate, immigrate;
  glare, gaze;
  illusion, delusion, induce, tempt;
  inhabit, live;
  intervene, interfere;
  mute, dump, silent, quiet, still;
  mutter, murmur, mumble;
  spy, traitor;
  stairs, staircase;
  statesman, politician

  Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked [A], [B], [C] and [D] on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
  Sugarless yoghurt (酸奶) could help beat bad breath, tooth decay and gum disease, say scientists. Japanese researchers found eating the yoghurt 62 levels of hydrogen sulphide (硫化氢) —a major 63 of bad breath — in 80% of volunteers. The 64 are active bacteria in yoghurt.
  Details were 65 at a meeting of the International Association for Dental Research. A (n) 66 of 24 volunteers who participated in the study were given strict instructions 67 oral health, diet and medicine taking. They spent two weeks 68 yoghurts and similar foods, like cheese. Researchers then 69 bacteria levels and odor-causing compounds,70 hydrogen sulphide. The volunteers then ate 90 grams of yoghurt a day for six weeks.
  At the end of the study, researchers took 71 again. They found hydrogen sulphide levels 72 in 80% of participants.
  Dr. Nigel Carter, chief executive of the British Dental Health Foundation, said: "The foundation has long been 73 people's attention to sugar-free yoghurts as a healthy snack, so it is pleasing to hear that it may have oral health benefits we were previously 74 of. "
  "Although this research is still in the early stages there is no 75 that sugar-free yoghurts provide a much healthier 76 to sweets and chocolate, and we would encourage snackers to 77 them into their diet. "
  78, Dr. Carter stressed that the best way to beat bad breath was by 79 a good oral health routine. This involves brushing twice-a-day with fluoride ( 氟化物 ) toothpaste, cutting 80 on the frequency of sugary snacks and drinks and visiting a dentist 81.
  62. [A] increased [B] required
  [C] averaged [D] reduced

  63. [A] reason [B] cause
  [C] result [D] origin

  64. [A] strategies [B] matters
  [C] keys [D] emergencies

  65. [A] presented [B] submitted
  [C] exposed [D] written

  66. [A ] whole [B] unit
  [C] total [D] amount

  67. [A] with [B] of
  [C] to [D] on

  68.[A ]avoiding [B] prohibiting
  [C] preventing [D]refusing

  69. [ A]balanced [B] evaluated
  [C 1 measured [D] counted

  70.[A] involving [B] including
  [C] containing [D] concerning

  71. [A ] modes [B] examples
  [C] copies [D] samples

  72. [A ] grew [B 1 remained
  [C 1 decreased [D] risen

  73. [A] drawing [B] paying
  [C] attracting [D] concentrating

  74. [A] uncertain [B]unaware
  [C] certain [D 1 aware

  75. [ A]idea [B] hesitation
  [C] doubt [D] sense

  76. [A ] selection [B] alternative
  [C] preference [D] substitute

  77. [A] convene [B] affiliate
  [C] constrain [D] incorporate

  78. [A ] However [B] Moreover
  [C] Therefore [D] Otherwise

  79. [A] bringing [B] adopting
  [C] receiving [D] adapting

  80. [A] off [B] back
  [C] out [D]down

  81. [A] regularly [B] occasionally
  [C] rarely [D] normally
【答案见下页】
    2009年12月英语六级考试完形填空的完形填空选自卫报的一篇文章,(http://www.guardian.co.uk/),近年来英语六级考试的阅读或者翻译等均有采自国外知名媒体的报道,大家平时复习的时候适当多多阅读这些大型媒体的文章或者事件报道。例如Economics, Times, New Yorkers etc.本次完型原文如下:

McDonald's, Greggs, KFC and Subway are today named as themost littered brands in Englandas Keep Britain Tidy called on fast-food companies to do more to tacklecustomers who drop their wrappers and drinks cartons in the streets.

Phil Barton, chief executive of Keep Britain Tidy, launching its new Dirty Pig campaign, said it was thefirst time it had investigated which brands madeup "littered England"and the same names appeared again and again. "We condemnlitterers for dropping this fast food litter inthe first place but also believe the results have pertinent messages for thefast food industry. McDonald's, the local chip shop, Greggs, KFC and Subwayneed to do more to discourage littering by theircustomers.

He recognised efforts made by McDonald's, including logos on its packaging, litter bins andlitter patrols, but its litter remained "all too prevalent". All fastfood chains should reduce unnecessary packaging,he added. Companies could also reduce prices forthose who stayed to eat food on their premises, offer money-off vouchers orother incentives for those who returnedpackaging and put more bins at strategic pointsin local streets, not just outside their premises. A spokesmanfor McDonald's said: "We do our best. Obviously we ask all ourcustomers to dispose of litter responsibly." Trials of more extensive,all-day litter patrols were under way in Manchester and Birmingham.KFC said it took its responsibility on littermanagement "very seriously", and would introduce a programme toreduce packaging on many products. Subway saidthat it worked hard to minimise the impact oflitter on communities, but it was "still down to the individual customer to dispose of their litterresponsibly". Greggs said it recognised the "continuing challenge forus all", despite having already takenmeasures to help tackle the issue.

本次完型填空最难的地方就是72.strategicpoints,大家可以采用排除法,curious/mysterious/strange都有一个奇怪的意向在其中,和我们原文中"把垃圾桶设置在当地街区中的XX点"是不相吻合的;因此把strategic带入,作为公司处理垃圾问题的战略性方式就发现非常合适了。

其它的地方,大家注意平时词语搭配的积累,比如launch a campaign, in the firstplace, take responsibility, tackle the issue/deal with the issue/cope with theissue。一些词语的精确表达也需要留心,比如condemn, minimise,六级考试中不会出现超纲的词汇,所以大家在准备时把握好纲内词汇就能轻松过关了
      at large(=at liberty, free) 在逃, 逍遥法外 at large(=in general) 一般来说, 大体上 at large(=at full length; with details)详细地
  accuse…of…(=charge…with; blame sb. for sth. ; blame sth. on sb. ; complain about) 指控,控告
  allow for (=take into consideration, take into account) 考虑到, 估计到 . 我要收藏
  amount to (=to be equal to) 总计, 等于.
  answer for (undertake responsibility for, be liable for, take charge for) 对…负责.
  abide by(=be faithful to ; obey)忠于;遵守
  comply with (=act in accordance with a demand, order, rule etc.) 遵守, 依从
  apply to sb. for sth. 为…向…申请 ; apply for申请; apply to 适用.
  apply to 与…有关;适用
  arise from(=be caused by) 由…引起.
  arrive on 到达; arrive at 到达某地(小地方);得出,作出; arrive in 到达某地(大地方);
  be ashamed of (=feel shame, guilt or sorrow because of sth. done) 以… 为羞耻
  assure sb. of sth. (=try to cause to believe or trust in sth.) 向…保证, 使…确信.
  attach(to) (=to fix, fasten; join) 缚, 系 ,结
  attend to (=give one’s attention, care and thought)注意,照顾;attend on(upon)(=wait upon, serve, look after) 侍候,照料
  in accordance with (=in agreement with) 依照,根据
  on one’s own account 1) 为了某人的缘故, 为了某人自己的利益 2) (=at one’s own risk) 自行负责 3) (=by oneself)依靠自己 on account 赊账; on account of 因为; on no account不论什么原因也不;of …account 有…..重要性.
  take…into account(=consider)把...考虑进去
  account for (=give an explanation or reason for) 解释, 说明.
  on account of (=because of) 由于,因为.
  be accustomed to (=be in the habit of, be used to)习惯于.
  be acquainted with(=to have knowledge of) 了解; (=to have met socially ) 熟悉
  act on 奉行,按照…行动; act as 扮演; act for 代理
  adapt oneself to(=adjust oneself to) 使自己适应于
  adapt…(for) (=make sth. Suitable for a new need) 改编, 改写(以适应新的需要)
  in addition (=besides) 此外, 又, 加之
  in addition to(=as well as, besides, other than)除…外
  adhere to (=abide by, conform to, comply with, cling to, insist on, pe rsist in, observe, opinion, belief ) 粘附; 坚持, 遵循
  adjacent(=next to, close to) 毗邻的, 临近的
  adjust..(to) (=change slightly)调节; 适应;
  have an advantage over 胜过. have the advantage of 由于…处于有利条件 have the advantage of sb.知道某人所不知道的事
  take advantage of (=make the best of, utilize, make use of, profit from, harness)利用.
  attribute…to…(=to believe sth. to be the result of…)把..归因于.., 认为..是..的结果
  begin with 以…开始. to begin with (=first of all) 首先, 第一(经常用于开始语)
  on behalf of (=as the representative of) 以…名义
  believe in(=have faith or trust in; consider sth.sb. to be true) 相信,依赖,信仰.
  get the better of (=defeat sb.) 打败, 胜过.
  by birth 在出生上,论出身,按血统 at birth 在出生时; give birth to 出生
  blame sb. for sth. 因…责备某人 . blame sth. on sb. 把…推在某人身上
  in blossom开花(指树木) be in blossom开花(强调状态) come into blossom开花(强调动作)
  take the floor 起立发言
  be capable of 能够, 有能力 be capable of being +过去分词是能够被…的
  compare…with … 把…与…比较  compare…to… 把…比作…
  complain of (or about)抱怨;诉苦;控告;complain about 抱怨某人或事情;
  complain to sb. about sth. (or sb.) 向某人抱怨…; complain (抱怨);
  complement (补充); compliment (恭维)
  delight in(=take great pleasure in doing sth.)喜欢, 取乐
  take (a) delight in 喜欢干…, 以…为乐
  demand sth. from sb. 向某人要求(物质的)东西
  deprive sb. of sth. 剥夺某人某物
  deviate from 偏离, 不按…办
  on a diet 吃某种特殊饮食, 节食
  differ from…in 与…的区别在于…
  dispose of (=get rid of ,throw away)处理掉
  beyond dispute不容争议的,无可争议
  in dispute 在争议中
  (be) distinct from ( = be different from) 与…截然不同
  distinguish between (=make or recognize differences) 辨别
  distinguish…from 把…与…区别开
  do away with(=get rid of; abolish; discard eliminate) 除去,废除,取消; do away with (=kill) 杀掉, 镇压
  come off duty 下班
  be in sympathy with 赞同,同情
  in terms of (=with regard to; respectively) 按照, 根据, 在…方面
  behind the times (思想,看法)落后于时代
  behind time (=late) 迟到, 晚点
  for the time being (=temporarily)暂时
  be in touch with 与…有接触, 有联系 be out of touch with 与…没有联系或接触
  in view of (=considering) 考虑到… in the view of 按…的意思
  as a whole (=in general) 就整体而论
  on the whole (=generally, for the most part) 大体上说
  against one’s will 违心地, 违背意愿地 at will 随心所欲; with a will 有决心地
  be aware of (=be conscious of )意识到,知道.
  in any case(=for love or money, at any rate, at any price, at any cost , whatever happens; anyhow)无论如何
  in case (=for fear that) 万一;
  in case of (=in the event of)如果发生…万一 in the case of 至于…, 就…而言
  in no case在任何情况下都不(放句首倒装句)
  be cautious of 谨防
  center one’s attention on(=focus one’s attention on) 把某人的注意力集中在…上
  in charge of (=responsible for) 负责(某事) in the charge of …由…管
  take charge of (=to be or become responsible for)负责管理(照顾)
  charge…for 因…索取(费用) , charge sb. with sth. 控告某人犯有…
  keep company with (=be friendly and go out together) 和…要好.
  in contrast towith 和…形成对比 by contrast 对比之下
  contribute to 有助于
  under control (被)控制住 out of control无法控制  at one’s convenience(=where and when it suits one) 在方便的时间或地点 .be convenient to for 对…方便
  convince sb. of (=cause sb. to believe or feel certain; to persuade sb.) 使某人确信,try to persuade sb. to do sth.劝说某人做…
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