英语六级考试中完型填空的特点在于它的综合性,也就是说,它对于考生的阅读能力,语法分析能力,词汇熟练掌握程度都进行了考查,因而具有相当的难度。

英语六级考试中的完型填空,按照大纲的规定,是在一篇题材熟悉、难度适中的短文(约200词)内留有20个空白,每个空白为一题,每题有四个选择项,要求考生在全面理解内容的基础上选择一个最佳答案,使短文的意思和结构恢复完整。下面我们来进行具体分析。

一、考查内容及相应的知识技巧

1.阅读及对文意的把握

完型填空的题干是以文章的形式出现的,它首先考查的就是考生的阅读能力。具体地说,这种阅读能力,主要指的是阅读速度以及对文章脉络的把握。
首先是阅读的速度。完型填空要求考生要有快速阅读的能力。在考试中,通常应该通读文章以了解其大意,而通读的时间一般应当限制在3分钟左右。如果时间过长,会使我们获取的信息淡化或者忘却,同时也不利于文章脉络的把握。

阅读速度的培养,说到底是一个阅读习惯的问题。我们在平常的英语学习中,已经养成了自己的阅读习惯,而习惯是否科学,则要进行分析。一般来说,默读,也即仅仅用眼睛获取信息,不出声,嘴巴也不动,是可以获得较高的速度的。同时,要注意阅读时精力高度的集中和正确的姿势,避免多余的身体动作。
其次是对文章脉络的把握。要在快速阅读中很好地把握文章的脉络,就必须在读的同时,对于每一个意群(通常是一个自然段)的大意进行概括。概括应尽量简短有利于记忆。譬如下面的一段话:

Data on a specific flight itinerary and the individual’sleep ___76___ are used to produce a trip guide with ___77___ on exactly when to be exposd to bright light(1999年6月CET6)。这段话的意思是“在基于具体的飞行线路和个人的睡眠模式编写的旅行指南上有关于何时受光的说明“。我们在概括的时候,可以简记为“指南的编写依据及内容“或者干脆就是“指南一依据一内容”。了解了每个意群的意义之后,将你的概括串起来,就是文章的脉络了。需要注意的是,对于衔接词,应该有充分的注意。例如so that。however,but等词。遇到它们时,可以做一些记号.以免忽略。它们对于文章的脉络是有重要意义的。

2.词汇的掌握词汇是英语学习的基础,也是完型填空题考查的重点。

在完型填空的20道题中,直接考查词汇的占了绝大部分。对于词汇的学习,需要注意的问题如下:
首先是如何记单词的问题。就我的经验而言,通过阅读的形式记忆,同时通过做词汇题的形式来加深对于重点词汇的印象是比较好的选择。当然,背诵词汇手册也是必要的,但应该占用不太多的时间。

其次是记忆到什么程度的问题。我认为,一般的词汇只要遇到时了解其意思就可以了,不需要对它们的拼写过分关注。重点的词汇则要特别注意。至于什么是重点词汇,你在平时的练习中接触较多的就是,这就要求我们对平时的练习要注重,要通过它掌握一定的知识。

3.语法
英语的语法是比较简单的。我们要注意的是一些特殊的语法规则。例如虚拟句的时态选择等。我的学习方法是将遇到的此类规则加以总结并及时强化记忆,这样或许就足够了。还有一种做法是将遇到的语法考题加以摘抄记忆,效果也是不错的。

二、历年试题分析和总结

在准备六级考试时,一种有效的方法,就是对所做过的题目进行分析和总结。及时的分析和总结,可以使我们免于题海战术的苦恼。大学英语考试所涵盖的知识点,其总量和可考查的内容是有限的,进行必要的总结工作,可以达到尽快掌握可考知识点的效果。
1.分析和总结的对象
对于完型填空题目的分析和总结,主要是集中在词汇方面,其次是语法方面。分析和总结的目的,是对准备过程中所遇到的知识点加以集中化。就分析和总结的对象而言,首先是历年的真题,其次是信度较高的模拟试题,也就是我们平时所说的名家所出的试题集。
2.分析和总结的方法

简而言之,分析,主要是针对自己所做错的题目,以及虽然偶然做对了实际上却仍然不明就里的题目。分析的步骤如下:首先,注明考点,找出出错的原因;其次,写下与之有关的可能会考到的知识点,或者写下自己的体会。我们来举个例子,如1999年6月CET6第78题:

When the trip guide calls ___78___ bright light you should spend time outdoors if possibe。四个选项分别是up,off,on,for。本题的正确答案为for。意思是“要求,请求”。本题的考点是动词与介词的搭配。如果误选了其他项,错误的原因就是没有弄懂call for,call up,call off,call on的区别。四项的意义分别是“召唤“,“取消”“号召,访问”和“要求,请求”。然后对本题加以引申,列举出call可能的与其他介词的搭配,这样,就完成了一次分析。至于总结,那就更加简单,你可以将题目及其分析按照各自的考点分门别类的抄下来,这就是总结了。
分析与总结是十分重要的。你所分析和总结的东西不仅可以成为以后做题的参考,在复习的最后阶段,还可以作为复习的主要对象。而且,一般说来,对曾经做错的题目分析总结之后,再犯同样的错误的可能性就会大大降低了。
3.六级考试常见词汇辨析小结
下面的一些近意词汇,在平时的练习中是要认真掌握
      administer, dominate, control, rule;
  abolish, cancel;
  apt, likely;
  beforehand, previously, ahead;
  flower, bloom, blossom;
  clasp, grasp, grip, clutch;
  clothes, dress, cloth;
  disclose, expose;
  emigrate, immigrate;
  glare, gaze;
  illusion, delusion, induce, tempt;
  inhabit, live;
  intervene, interfere;
  mute, dump, silent, quiet, still;
  mutter, murmur, mumble;
  spy, traitor;
  stairs, staircase;
  statesman, politician

a bad beginning makes a bad ending.   不善始者不善终。

a bad thing never dies.   遗臭万年。

a bad workman always blames his tools.   不会撑船怪河弯。

a bird in the hand is worth than two in the bush.   一鸟在手胜过双鸟在林。

a boaster and a liar are cousins-german.   吹牛与说谎本是同宗。

a bully is always a coward.   色厉内荏。

a burden of one’s choice is not felt.   爱挑的担子不嫌重。

a candle lights others and consumes itself.   蜡烛照亮别人,却毁灭了自己。

a cat has 9 lives.   猫有九条命。

a cat may look at a king.   人人平等。

a close mouth catches no flies.   病从口入。

a constant guest is never welcome.   常客令人厌。

actions speak louder than words.   事实胜于雄辩。

adversity leads to prosperity.   穷则思变。

adversity makes a man wise, not rich.   逆境出人才。

a fair death honors the whole life.   死得其所,流芳百世。

a faithful friend is hard to find.   知音难觅。

a fall into a pit, a gain in your wit.   吃一堑,长一智。

a fox may grow gray, but never good.   江山易改,本性难移。

a friend in need is a friend indeed.   患难见真情。

a friend is easier lost than found.   得朋友难,失朋友易。

a friend is never known till a man has need.   需要之时方知友。

a friend without faults will never be found.   没有十全十美的朋友。

’after you’ is good manners.   “您先请”是礼貌。

a good beginning is half done.   良好的开端是成功的一半。

a good beginning makes a good ending.   善始者善终。

a good book is a good friend.   好书如挚友。

a good book is the best of friends, the same today and forever.   一本好书,相伴一生。

a good conscience is a soft pillow.   不做亏心事,不怕鬼叫门。

a good fame is better than a good face.   美名胜过美貌。

a good husband makes a good wife.   夫善则妻贤。

a good medicine tastes bitter.   良药苦口。

a good wife health is a man’s best wealth.   妻贤身体好是男人最大的财富。

a great talker is a great liar.   说大话者多谎言。

a hedge between keeps friendship green.   君子之交淡如水。

a joke never gains an enemy but loses a friend.   戏谑不能化敌为友,只能使人失去朋友。

a leopard cannot change its spots.   积习难改。

a liar is not believed when he speaks the truth.   说谎者即使讲真话也没人相信。

a light heart lives long.   静以修身。

a little body often harbors a great soul.   浓缩的都是精品。

a little knowledge is a dangerous thing.   一知半解,自欺欺人。

a little pot is soon hot.   狗肚子盛不得四两油。

all are brave when the enemy flies.

敌人逃窜时,人人都成了勇士。

all good things come to an end.   天下没有不散的筵席。

all rivers run into sea.   海纳百川。

all roads lead to rome.   条条大路通罗马。

all that ends well is well.   结果好,就一切都好。

all that glitters is not gold.   闪光的不一定都是金子。

all things are difficult before they are easy.   凡事总是由难而易。

all work and no play makes jack a dull boy.   只会用功不玩耍,聪明孩子也变傻。

a man becomes learned by asking questions.   不耻下问才能有学问。

a man can do no more than he can.   凡事都应量力而行。

a man cannot spin and reel at the same time.   一心不能二用。

a man is known by his friends.   什么人交什么朋友。

a man of words and not of deeds is like a garden full of weeds.   光说空话不做事,犹如花园光长刺。

a man without money is no man at all.   一分钱难倒英雄汉。

a merry heart goes all the way.   心旷神怡,事事顺利。

a miss is as good as a mile.   失之毫厘,差之千里。

a mother’s love never changes.   母爱永恒。

an apple a day keeps the doctor away.   一天一苹果,不用请医生。

a new broom sweeps clean.   新官上任三把火。

an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.   以眼还眼,以牙还牙。


an hour in the morning is worth two in the evening.   一日之计在于晨。

an old dog cannot learn new tricks.   老狗学不出新把戏。

an ounce of luck is better than a pound of wisdom.   聪明才智,不如运气。

an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.   预防为主,治疗为辅。

a rolling stone gathers no moss.   滚石不生苔,转业不聚财。

as a man sows, so he shall reap.   种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆。

a single flower does not make a spring.   一花独放不是春,百花齐放春满园。

a snow year, a rich year.   瑞雪兆丰年。

a sound mind in a sound body.   健全的精神寓于健康的身体。

a still tongue makes a wise head.   寡言者智。

a stitch in time saves nine.   小洞不补,大洞吃苦。

a straight foot is not afraid of a crooked shoe.   身正不怕影子斜。

a wise head makes a close mouth.   真人不露相,露相非真人。

a word spoken is past recalling.   一言既出,驷马难追。

a year’s plan starts with spring.   一年之计在于春。

a young idler, an old beggar.   少壮不努力,老大徒伤悲。

bad news has wings.   好事不出门,坏事传千里。

barking dogs seldom bite.   吠犬不咬人。

beauty lies in the love’s eyes.   情人眼里出西施。

be swift to hear, slow to speak.   听宜敏捷,言宜缓行。

better late than never.   不怕慢,单怕站。

better to ask the way than go astray.   问路总比迷路好。

between friends all is common.   朋友之间不分彼此。

birds of a feather flock together.   物以类聚,人以群分。

blood is thicker than water.   血浓于水。

blood will have blood.   血债血偿。

books and friends should be few but good.   读书如交友,应求少而精。

business is business.   公事公办。

business is the salt of life.   事业是人生的第一需要。

by reading we enrich the mind, by conversation we polish it.   读书使人充实,交谈使人精明。

cannot see the wood for the trees.   一叶障目,不见泰山。

care and diligence bring luck.   谨慎和勤奋才能抓住机遇。

caution is the parent of safety.   小心驶得万年船。

cheats never prosper.   骗人发不了财。

children are what the mothers are.   耳濡目染,身教言传。

choose an author as you choose a friend.   择书如择友。

come what may, heaven won’t fall.   做你的吧,天塌不下来。

complacency is the enemy of study.   学习的敌人是自己的满足。

confidence in yourself is the first step on the road to success.   自信是走向成功的第一步。

constant dripping wears away a stone.   水滴石穿,绳锯木断。

content is better than riches.   知足者常乐。

count one’s chickens before they are hatched.   蛋未孵先数雏。

courtesy on one side only lasts not long.   来而不往非礼也。

creep before you walk.   循序渐进。

cry for the moon.   海底捞月。

custom is a second nature.   习惯是后天养成的。

custom makes all things easy.   有个好习惯,事事皆不难。

diamond cuts diamond.   强中自有强中手。

do as the romans do.   入乡随俗。

do as you would be done by.   己所不欲,勿施于人。

doing is better than saying.   与其挂在嘴上,不如落实在行动上。

do it now.   机不可失,时不再来。

do nothing by halves.   凡事不可半途而废。

don’t claim to know what you don’t know.   不要不懂装懂。

don’t have too many irons in the fire.   不要揽事过多。

don’t make a mountain out of a molehill.   不要小题大做。

don’t put off till tomorrow what should be done today.   今日事,今日毕。

don’t put the cart before the horse.   不要本末倒置。

don’t trouble trouble until trouble troubles you.   不要自找麻烦。

don’t try to teach your grandmother to suck eggs.  不要班门弄斧。

do well and have well.   善有善报。

each bird love to hear himself sing.   孤芳自赏。

early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.   早睡早起身体好。

easier said than done.   说得容易,做得难。

easy come, easy go.   来也匆匆,去也匆匆。

eat to live, but not live to eat.   人吃饭是为了活着,但活着不是为了吃饭。

empty vessels make the greatest sound.   实磨无声空磨响,满瓶不动半瓶摇。

envy has no holidays.   忌妒之人无宁日。

even homer sometimes nods.   智者千虑,必有一失。

even reckoning makes long friends.   亲兄弟,明算账。

every advantage has its disadvantage.
精细阅读PASSAGE one


本篇来自于Time Magazine(时代周刊)2009年7月2日题为A Brief History of Black Boxes(黑匣子的历史)文章,原文略有删减。原文参见:http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1908245,00.html

文章首段阐述了飞机上的黑匣子的功能,即记录飞机的飞行状况。第二段是对首段的实例说明。第三段按时间顺序描述了黑匣子的发展历程,请关注三个时间:1958, 1960和1965。 最后一段说明改进后的现代黑匣子既有语音记录的功能,又能记录飞行数据。

原题:57.What does the author say about the black box?
A) It ensures the normal functioning of an airplane.
B)The idea for its design comes from a comic book.
C) Its ability to ward off disasters is incredible.
D) It is an indispensable device on an airplane.

答案:57 D It is an indispensable device on an airplane
原文中的Their ability to withstand almost any disaster makes them seem like something out of a comic book.可能是误导学生选择C的原因。withstand意为“经受,承受”,而C中的ward off 则为“避开,挡住”之意。本句句意为:飞机失事后,黑箱子往往能完好无损,躲过灾难,这简直令人难以置信(就像漫画书中的东西一样)

原题:58.What information could be found from the black box on the Yemeni airliner?
A) Data for analyzing the cause of the crash.
B) The total number of passengers on board.
C) The scene of the crash and extent of the damage.
D) Homing signals sent by the pilot before the crash.
答案:58 A Data for analyzing the cause of the crash
原文定位为第二段最后一句:“the discovery marked a huge step toward determining the cause of a tragedy in which 152 passengers were killed.” cause of a tragedy与选项中的cause of the crash一致。

原题:59. Why was the black box redesigned in 1965?
A) New materials become available by that time.
B) Too much space was needed for its installation.
C) The early models didn’t provide the needed data.
D) The early models often got damaged in the crash
答案:59 D The early models often got damaged in the crash
原文定位于第三段“Early models often failed to withstand crashes, however, so in 1965 the device was completely redesigned....” failed to withstand crashes与选项中的got damaged in the crash同义。

原题:60. Why did the Federal Aviation Authority require the black boxes be painted orange or yellow?
A) To distinguish them from the color of the plane.
B) To caution people to handle them with care.
C) To make them easily identifiable.
D)To conform to international standards.
答案: 60 C To make them easily identifiable
原文定位于第三段最后一句…be painted orange or yellow to aid visibility. to aid visibility意为“有助于提高能见度”,与easily identifiable同义。

原题:61.What do we know about the black boxes from Air France Flight 447?
A)There is still a good chance of their being recovered.
B)There is an urgent need for them to be restructured.
C)They have stopped sending homing signals.
D)They were destroyed somewhere near Brazil.
答案: 61 A There is still a good chance of their being recovered
原文定位于最后一段…but statistics say they’re still likely to turn up. Turn up 与recovered 同义,“被找到”。be restructured 意为“被重建”。

精细阅读PASSAGE two

本篇来自于Time Magazine(时代周刊)2009年7月8日题为Yes, I Suck: Self-Help Through Negative Thinking(是的,我糟透了:消极思维益于自助)文章,原文略有删减。原文参见:http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1909019,00.html

文章题目中的I suck可能会令考生困惑,意为“很烂”、“很差”、“糟透了”。Suck 一词在英语口语中使用频率很高,在英语电影中经常听到。文章首段第一句提出自助的理论基础是变消极思维为积极思维,但之后的连续两个问句让读者对此论述提出了质疑。第二段阐述了加拿大科学家的研究结果,即积极思维的效果适得其反。3-5段分别用两个实验论证了这一研究结果的正确性:90年代的作文案例(第三段)和68名学生的自我肯定案例(第三、四段)。作者在最后一段推荐了一种新的心理疗法:静思法。

原题:62.What do we learn from the first paragraph about the self-help industry?
A)It is a highly profitable industry.
B)It is based on the concept of positive thinking.
C)It was established by Norman Vincent Peale.
D)It has yielded positive results.
答案:62. B It is based on the concept of positive thinking
原文定位于首段第一句“The $ 11 billion self-help industry is built on the idea that you should turn negative thoughts like “I never do anything right”into positive ones like “I can succeed.”属于细节理解题。选项中的based on与文中的built on同义。

原题:63.What is the finding of the Canadian researchers?
A)Encouraging positive thinking may do more harm than good.
B)There can be no simple therapy for psychological problems.
C)Unhappy people cannot think positively.
D)The power of positive thinking is limited.
答案:63. A Encouraging positive thinking may do more harm than good
原文定位为第二段:“Researchers in Canada just published a study in the journal Psychological Science that says trying to get people to think more positively can actually have opposite effect;”之后,作者在下一段又再次强调了这一观点“older research showing that when people get feedback which they believe is overly positive, they actually feel worse , not better.” cause of a tragedy与选项中的cause of the crash一致。抓住关键词“opposite effect;feel worse , not better”,答案即可一目了然。

原题:64.What does the author mean by“…you’re just underlining his faults”(Line4,Para.3)?
A)You are not taking his mistakes seriously enough.
B)You are pointing out the errors he has committed.
C)You are emphasizing the fact that he is not intelligent.
D)You are trying to make him feel better about his faults.
答案:64. C You are emphasizing the fact that he is not intelligent
与答案较为相近的是选项B。本题关键是正确理解文章中两个单词“underline(加强,强调)”与“dim(迟钝的,愚笨的)”。选项B中的point out是“指出”之意,与文章中的underlining意思不符。

原题:65.What do we learn from the experiment of Wood,Lee and Perunovic?
A)It is important for people to continually boost their self-esteem.
B)Self-affirmation can bring a positive change to one’s mood.
C)Forcing a person to think positive thoughts may lower their self-esteem.
D)People with low self-esteem seldom write down their true feelings.
答案: 65. B Forcing a person to think positive thoughts may lower their self-esteem
原文定位于第五段Those with low self-esteem didn’t feel better after the forced self-affirmation. In fact, their moods turned significantly darker than those of members of the control group, who weren’t urged to think positive thoughts。抓住关键词“didn’t feel better;darker”。

原题:66.What do we learn from the last paragraph?
A) The effects of positive thinking vary from person to person.
B) Meditation may prove to be a good form of psychotherapy.
C) Different people tend to have different ways of thinking.
D) People can avoid making mistakes through meditation.
答案:66. B Meditation may prove to be a good form of psychotherapy 
原文定位于最后一段。作者在最后一段提出了新的心理疗法,建议人们接受消极思维,而不要一味用积极思维去反抗。In contrast这一短语的应用,说明meditation是积极思维的对立面,即消极思维的一种方式。只有把自己的不足放到更广泛、更现实的层面去思考,才会大事化小,小事化了。选项D中的内容文中并未提及。

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