英语六级短文改错常见七大错误

      一、动词

  二、连词

  三、平行结构

  四、代词

  五、语义矛盾

  六、词性

  七、固定搭配


  以下列出常见错误公式,请借此举一反三,加以理解常见错误规律:

  一、动词:

  – 谓语动词:时态,语态,主谓一致

  · 时态:

  – do----did

  – did----do

  · 语态:

  – 被动语态:be + v-ed + by(of/with...)

  eg....the countries which threatened by...(05年)

  ·主谓一致:n. + (prep. + n.) + v

  – 非谓语动词:

  – doing----done

  二、连词:

  – 三大从句:

  ·定语从句:...,that + 从句----which/who

  ...prep + that/who + 从句----which/whom

  ·名词性从句:that - what

  · 状语从句:S + even/just + S

  · 平行结构:

  – do, do, and doing

  – prep + do and doing

  – N, like N-s, N-s...

  三、代词:

  it----they/them

  its----their

  · 语义矛盾:

  acceptance----rejection

  ·词性:adj-adv,adv-adj 
1.The doctor _______________(建议用一种新药来治疗这种病).

2. The two parties differ very sharply from each other _______________(在采取正确的补救办法的问题上).

3. An average student with average intelligence can be a top student ________________(只要仔细安排他/她的时间).

4. _______________(让世界发展如此之快的)is the modern science ⛰ꙹ忈媸麉丝먖http://www.hjbbs.com/©版权所有沪江网먖丝麉媸忈ꙹ⛰and technology.

5. A student must treasure his time and ________________(吸收尽可能多的知识)to lay a solid foundation for his future career.

【翻译答案】

1. suggests treating the case with a new drug

解析:考生容易将此句"治疗"翻译成cure,cure强调"治疗、治愈,侧重治疗效果",如:The doctor used special medicines to cure him of the measles.(医生用特效药治愈了麻疹。)而treat强调医治的过程,后接sb.或sth.作宾语。另外,"建议做某事"通常可以用句型"suggest doing"或"suggest that"从句。

2. over the correct remedies to apply

解析:首先要看到differ...from的结构,它表示"和......不同","与......在某方面不同"要用differ...from...over/on/upon...。"问题"是范畴词,不需要译成over the question of the correct remedies to apply以避免累赘。考生要注意比较differ from与differ with的差别。differ with是说"不同意......的意见",相当于disagree with,如:I differ with him on that point,though he may be right.(在那一点上,我不同意他的意见,尽管他可能是对的。)

3. if he plans his/her time carefully

解析:本题考查代词在人称、数、性上的一致性。全句意为:一个中等智力水平的学生只要安排他/她的时间也能成为优等生。Student是单数,但无法确定名词的性,因此条件句中可用阳性或阴性。

4. What makes the world develop so fast

解析:根据句子各部分语法功能判断,我们在这里需要的是一个主语,因此必须将需填入部分译成what引导的主语从句,全句意思为"什么让世界发展如此之快--是现代科技"。

5. absorb as much knowledge as he can

解析:本句意为:学生应该珍惜宝贵时间并吸收尽可能多的知识以便为将来事业打下坚实的基础。"吸收"可选用absorb,drink in,take in."尽可能多的"译为as many as或as much as,具体要看句中名词是可数还是不可数。lay a foundation for表示"为......打下基础"。
1. We'll be all right _______________(只要我们能到达下一个加油站).

2. Seeing these pictures _______________(让我想到了我的童年时代).

3. We all know the fact that ________________(他们已使工厂现代化).

4. It is quite clear that _______________(整个计划注定要失败).

5. All the lights in this building ________________(都受这个开关的控制).

【翻译答案】

1. if only we can get to the next petrol-station

解析:本题"只要"不能用as long as,as long as保留时间方面的含义,它引导的条件句中的谓语动词通常是延续动词或系动词,如:I'll let you use the room as long as you keep it clean.(只要你能保持房间清洁,我就让你用这个房间。)如果条件句中的谓语动词表示短暂性的动作,最好用if only。本句中"到达"就是一个瞬间动词,因此不选用as long as。

2. reminded me of my own childhood

解析:一般说来,"让某人做某事"是祈使句,多用make sb. do/ let sb. do的句型。但题中情况较特殊。按英文表达习惯,使某人想起某事要用remind sb. of sth.的结构。如:The film reminded him of what he had seen in China.(这部影片使他回想起在中国所看到的一切。)This reminded her of college days.(这使她回想起了大学里的日子。)remember指"记住、牢记",与remind...of有区别。

3. they have modernized their factories

解析:本题考查that引导同位语从句。The fact是先行词,指代后半句整个内容,"他们已使工厂现代化"是对先行词的补充。

4. the whole project is doomed to failure/fail

解析:that-从句作主语通常用it作形式主语,而将that-从句置于句末。如:It is a pity that you should have to leave.(你非走不可真是件憾事。)另外,"注定......"是一个固定搭配,be doomed to通常后接名词或不定式,如:The prisoner was doomed to death.(囚犯被判处死刑。)His dogmatism is doomed to put him into isolation.(他的独断专行注定使他陷入孤立。)

5. are controlled by this switch

解析:本题翻译并不难,但考查了"by+执行者"在句中的用法。我们知道,"by+执行者"结构表示被动,通常在句中可以省略。但在以下几种场合必须翻译出来。第一,当执行者指艺术家、发明家、发现者、革新者等的专有名词时,如:The Last Dinner was painted by Da Vinci.(《最后的晚餐》是达芬奇画的)。第二,当执行者是非确定性名词短语时。如:While the boy was walking on the road,he was robbed of his bread by an old man.(那个男孩在路上行走时,他的面包被一老人抢去。)本题所考查的正是第三种;当执行者是非生物性名词短语时。
1. The murderer deserves _______________(被绞死).

2. _______________(他们来帮忙)encouraged me.

3. I was sorry ________________(没看上这部电影).

4. In this night,if we can make good use of time,_______________(当然毫无疑问地我们会成功).

5. The government should enforce laws strictly. On the other hand,the public also should ________________(培养减少污染的好习惯).

【翻译答案】

1. hanging/ to be hanged

解析:本题既可以用V-ing也可以用动词不定式。除deserve外,need,require,want后也可以跟主动语态的动名词,但含义却是被动的。如:Your windows need cleaning.(你的窗户需要擦。)His story requires investigating.(他说的话需要调查核实。)Your shoes want polishing.(你的鞋需要擦。)与这类用法很类似的是形容词worth后接动名词,其含义也属于被动。如:Your method is worth trying.(你的办法值得一试。)The novel is worth reading.(这本小说值得一读。)

2. Their coming to help

解析:原中文句是一个完整的"主、谓、宾"结构,但这种汉语语法结构按照字面直接译成英语They came to help的话,就不符合英语语法规范,因为后半句已经出现了谓语动词encouraged,所以这里我们要采用词性转译法,把"他们来帮忙"处理成动名词作主语的形式。其实,还有一种方法是把"他们来帮忙"处理成that引导的主语从句That they came to help,在句子作主语。

3. to have missed this film

解析:本题考查了反译法和不定式完成时的用法。"没看上这部电影,所以我才感到遗憾",因此动作发生在谓语动词之前,所以要用完成时态。如果用正译法将句子需填入部分译成not to have seen this film就不符合英语表达习惯,没有答案的效果好。

4. there can surely be no doubt that we will succeed

解析:in this light是一个惯用表达,意思是"这样说来";make good use of指"善用时间"。如果将原文译成there can be no doubt that we would succeed,就只将"毫无疑问"译了出来,却没能体现"当然"。那么在there can结构中"当然"应该放在什么位置呢?通常surely/ certainly都放在情态动词之后,系动词之前。注意:"成功"也可以说get somewhere;反之,不成功、一事无成、毫无进展就用get nowhere。如:The new policy will get the company nowhere.(新的政策将使公司前途晦暗。)

5. develop the good habit of reducing pollution

解析:本题考查词义辨析。"培养"的英文对应词是cultivate,但cultivate是指通过犁地等来耕作土地或指对人的养育、培育,如:to cultivate a love of art(培养对艺术的爱好);to cultivate a new generation(培育新一代)。句中的意思是说,政府应严格执法,另一方面,大众也应该养成减少污染的好习惯。"习惯"是要大众自己养成的,而不是说大众要培养什么其他人,所以应用develop这个词,表示逐渐形成,使行为朝着某一特定目标发展。

1. He works _______________(在倒数第二个办公室).

2. The beauty of the lake is _______________(难以用语言形容).

3. ________________(一个人如果关在家里),a person can't know much about the world.

4. _______________(完成作业后),they went to the library.

5. I found him ________________(被打得青一块紫一块).

【翻译答案】

1. in the last office but one

解析:but经常与表示最高级的形容词或first,next,last等同连用,如:Some people say this nation is the cleverest but one in the whole world.(有人说,这个民族在全世界范围内聪明才智排第二。)She was the last but one to come.(她是倒数第二个来的。)

2. beyond description

解析:比起译文not easy to describe in words,cannot be described by words,答案的译文显然要精妙得多。beyond用作介词时可以表示exceeding,out the reach of,即:超出(理解、范围、眼界)之上。如:This passage is beyond my comprehension.(这篇文章超出了我的理解力。)I won’t buy your radio set beyond my offer.(只要超出我出的价钱,我就不买你这台收音机。)

3. Kept within houses

解析:过去分词短语作状语表示条件,相当于一个条件状语从句。Kept within houses要比If a person was kept within houses更简洁明了,且可以避免前后句person的重复。请看下例:Given more time, I can also do it.(如果给我足够时间,我也可以做此事。)过去分词短语还可以作原因状语、时间状语、伴随状语等。考生应注意复习。如:
Influenced by his ideas, she joined the revolution too.(作原因状语)
Heated,ice changes into water.(作条件状语)
He went there with great hope,but returned greatly disappointed.(表伴随状况)

4. Having finished their homework

解析:我们知道,现在分词在句中可以表示原因、时间、条件、结果等。本题考查了现在分词短语作时间状语的用法。由后半句可知,“完成作业”发生在“他们去图书馆”之前,因此,现在分词短语需要用完成时态。如果分词动作与谓语动词动作同时发生,就用一般式,如:Seeing the picture,he couldn’t help thinking of her. (一看到照片,他就禁不住想起她。)

5. beaten black and blue

解析:本题考点有二:一是如何表达习语“青一块紫一块”;二是过去分词作宾语补足语的用法。过去分词作宾语补足语改为被动语态时,可以省略to be,尤其是在like,want,order,wish后,如:I wish him driven away. = I wish him to be driven away。换成被动语态后就是:He is wished (to be ) driven away.

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