一、记忆单词最好的方法是大量阅读和看听

  应该通过大量的阅读、看听扩大词汇量,这是扩大词汇的最正确、最有效的方法。

  因为在阅读中遇到的单词,它是在一个情境中出现的,这不仅有利于对单词意思的深刻理解,而且记忆的非常牢固。

      这种方法跟背词典或词汇书比起来,要有效得多!

  纯粹地背词汇,不仅容易忘记,而且由于一般没有上下文的提示,对单词意思的理解经常会不到位!

  回想一下我们对中文词汇的理解吧!我们什么时候拿着字典来识汉字了?字词的意思是在日常的使用中,在阅读中、生活中掌握的。而且大多数的情况是,这个字、词我以前并不认识,但第一次见到的时候并不需要拿词典查找它的意思就可以通过它出现的语境知道。例如,东北人常用的“整”字,什么意思?不知道!但一听赵本山说句:“你尽给我整这些没用的!”相信就明白了吧?!第一次听到“无事不登三宝殿”这个“中文短语”或“习惯用法”你用查词典才能明白是什么意思吗?你听过一遍之后,是不是记已经牢记在心了?下次是不是也会应用了?

  总之,大量阅读、看听不同领域的大量文章,这是提高词汇量的不二正法。也是效率最高的、最值得推荐的方法。

  听对于记忆单词那是更重要了,听不仅具有阅读所所带来的一切功能,更重要的是让你掌握单词的发音。如果一个单词你不知道怎么读,你记一万遍,这个单词怎么拼写,你都不一定能掌握!听什么呢?

  二、通过词根、前缀、后缀、构词法记忆单词

  虽然通过阅读扩大词汇是是记忆单词最好、最有效、最根本的方法,但对于我们来说,有时还是不可避免地要背些词汇书或词典的,例如我们考四、六级,考雅思,考TOEFL、GRE、GMAT等。或者,我们在平时学习大学英语的时候,每篇课文后面都有词汇表,我当初的习惯先把单词表给背会了,再看课文,这样的好处是不用查词典了,节省时间;而且,刚刚记忆的单词立马在语境中出现,这对于加深记忆和理解都是非常有好处的!那么,在这个时候,我们有什么好方法记忆这个词汇呢?

  背词汇的方法,一万个人可能会有一万种方法。但我想,正法是通过词根、前缀、后缀、构词法记忆单词。这是最好的方法。因为英语单词有它自身的规律,词根、前缀、后缀相当于汉字的偏旁部首,英语单词就是由它们来构造。

  我这样说,是怕同学们走旁门左道,走火入魔。好比说那本著名的红宝书里对“charisma”给出的记忆方法是"china+rise+mao",就是“中国出了个毛泽东”,就是“领袖人物的超凡魅力”的意思。这种记忆确实非常形象,非常生动。但我要告诉同学们的是,一,这种方法记容易忘;二,在单词里有词根的情况下,最好还是根据词根来记!

  所以,我们在背词汇的时候,还是应该找一本最好对词根进行了分解的书,这种有利于我们的记忆,有利于夯实我们真正的英语功底,有利于我们树立正确的词汇观,有利于培养我们正确的“词感”!

  三、背单词的一些小技巧

  好比说,我在背考四级单词的时候,喜欢用硬纸片(现在呢,可以用一张废弃的银行卡,这玩艺是再合适不过了)来背单词。怎么个用法呢?就是先背一二遍或几遍单词,然后呢,就开始回忆了。回忆的时候为了防止干扰,用纸片把中文意思盖上,尽量靠自己的回忆。如果自己回忆出来了,那么就拿开纸片核对一下;如果自己回忆不出来,不要着急拿出纸片,先努力想想,实在想不出来的时候,再拿开纸片查看。

  这里有几个问题。一,在一时回忆不起的时候,思考多久合适呢?我的建议是不要太久了。更不要借回忆之机让自己的思维陷入“停滞”的状态。要积极、敏锐、快速,不要耗时间,因为我们的青春完全可以用来做更有意义的事情;二,回忆单词的时候,千万不要追求与词典的一一完全对应,意思大致对了就可以。如果你追求这种完美,那么你就太迂腐了,你要为你的迂腐付出沉重代价!好比说“charisma”这个词,你只需要知道你个词的意思大致是“领导人物的非凡魅力”或“领导人物的魅力”就可以了,没有必要非得要说出词典上的那几个汉字“超凡魅力, 感召力, 教皇般的指导力”;三,一个单词如果有好多的意思,不需要每个意思都背,只需要掌握它的最基本的意思。其他的引申意思了解即可,要相信我们的逻辑思维能力可以把它(们)推测出来!

  当年,我考四级的时候,那本四六级词汇大纲就这么在小纸片的帮助下背下来了,不知为什么同学们也知道了,连系党委书记也知道了,我还挺引以为荣,沾沾自喜。

  可是,当我背GRE单词时,我发现这个方法不好使了。当单词量比较少时,好比说,红宝书,咱有这个时间。但当我背宫东风先生的那套浩浩二大本、大约有3万单词、每个单词有N多意思的词汇书时,这种方法明显失效了!因为你根本就没有时间这么来背单词。于是,我突然间觉得以前引以为荣,沾沾自喜的单词记忆方法原来不是万能的!

  那么,面对大词汇量时,我们该怎么记忆呢?这个时候,就只能是读单词了。不断地翻阅,一遍又一遍地翻阅。在翻阅的时候,不断地做些笔记。例如,我背到suds(肥皂水)这个词的时候,就可能联想到了以前背过的scud(飞跑),那我就把它写在旁边,这是形似;再例如,我在背到chortle(哈哈大笑)的时候,我可能想到了chuckle, giggle, guffaw, smirk, snicker, snigger, titter等,这是意近。再例如,我背到了哭,自然就想到了笑。类似这种反义、近意、同义,类别、从属之类的联想,应该是无限的!我的感受是,把你的脑海里闪过的这些联想记录下来,一是你的记忆被连结成片了,连成片的东西不仅易记,而且不易忘!二是你将来复习的时候,你会惊诧于自己的联想力,你的联想、你的想象会感动自己,震慑自己的心灵,你会想giggle这个单词我当初都把它给写出来了,怎么我现在都不认识了。而这种心灵的震慑对于提高你单词记忆的效率有着不可估量的作用!

  当然,还有就是形象记忆等,例如eye这个单词,那两个e不就是鼻子y上面的两只眼睛吗;bed这个词,长得多么象床啊! 
多种表达也就是一句多译,使得文章不会太枯燥。多种表达法可以给文章添加新意。其主要途径有:

1、运用同义词语

如:“他上星期生病了”可译为:
(1) He got ill last week.

(2) He was ill last week.

(3) He fell ill last week.

(4) He became ill last week.

(5) He was in bad health last week.

2、运用同一词语的不同句式结构

如:“他写那篇文章花了三个星期”可译为:

(1) It took him three weeks to write the article.

(2) He took three weeks to write the article.

(3) The article took him three weeks.

(4) To write the article took him three weeks.

(5) It took three weeks for him to write the article.

(6) Writing the article took him three weeks.

3、运用简单句与复合句的相互转换理论

如:The man standing there is a policeman.→The man who is standing there is a policeman.

What we should do next is unknown.→What to do next is unknown.

We are thinking of how we can finish the work in time.→We are thinking of how to finish the work in time.

4、综合运用同义词语与不同句式

如:“他做完练习后,便出去了”可译为:

(1) After he had finished the exercises, he went out.

(2) After he finished the exercises, he went out.

(3) Having finished the exercises, he went out.

(4) Finishing the exercises, he went out.

(5) After finishing the exercises, he went out.

(6) The exercises being finished, he went out.

(7) The exercises finished, he went out.

(8) The exercises having been done, he went out.

除此之外,还可采用修辞等方法,以增进多种表达的本领。
第一部分 选择题型的篇章阅读理解

  这部分是考生们最为熟悉的四选一的选择题。新老试卷最大的区别就是由原来的四篇文章二十道题目变为两篇文章十道题目。而其他无论是从选材的特点,文章的长度,出题的思路,解题的技巧都是秉承了传统,考生们还是应该根据历年的真题,好好复习。从样题看,主要还是考察考生们两大能力,即主题和定位。要求考生读完一篇文章之后,能够抓住文章的主题,然后根据题干中的中心词迅速返回原文定位到一句话,最后根据同义改写的原则,选出正确答案。

  判定文章主题技巧

  有的考生认为只要不考主旨题,就没必要了解文章的主旨。其实这是一种很狭隘的错误认识,因为即使不考主题题型,在任何题型当中,如果你感觉很茫然,找不到任何定位信息的时候,你所能抓住唯一的,最后一根救命稻草就是文章的主题,题目做多了,你就会发现哪个选项和文章的主题越是接近,就越是正确答案,所以能否判定一篇文章的主题对于解题是至关重要的。下面就寻找文章的主题谈一些技巧。

  1) 读文章时重点关注文章的首段和首末句。按照西方人习惯性的思维方式和写作习惯,他们惯用的是演绎法:即文章一开始先扔出自己的核心观点,然后具体一步步论证。根据我的统计,每一段的第一句、第二句和最后一句话为本段的主题句的概率分别为50%、20%、20%,三句话成为主题句的概率超过九成,当然也就成为我们阅读的重中之重。

  2) 关注一篇文章或者一段话中有没有重复出现的词或词组、有没有黑体字或者是斜体字。如果有,通常这就是文章的核心概念

  3) 问句不会是主题句。问句通常作为过渡或者是引子,因此应该忽略,真正的主题应该是这个问题的答案。

  4) 关注一些表征强转折关系的连词,如 “but, yet, however, in fact, indeed, practically, virtually”等,这些词后面连接的通常都是一段话的主题句。

  5) 关注一些表征总结性,结论性的词,如 “in brief/short, above/in/after/all in all, conclusion, to sum”等,这些词后面连接的通常也都是一段话的主题句。

  6) 如果主题句含有show和suggest等词,重点看其后的宾语从句。

  7) 掌握一些词组强调的重点,如 “not only…, but also ***, *** as well as …, more *** than …, less …, than *** (***为强调的重点)”。

  第二部分 篇章层次的词汇理解 (Banked Cloze)

  这是一种新题型,对于众多考生而言,既陌生又有一定的难度,具有较强的区分度。从样题看,Banked Cloze考一篇长度为220个单词左右的文章,在文章当中去除了10个单词,后面有15个单词选项,要求考生选择正确的单词填入文章。该部分测试重点在于把握文章的结构,主要考察考生对诸如连贯性、一致性、逻辑联系等语篇、语段整体特征以及单词在实际语境中的理解,即要求考生在理解全文的基础上弄清文章的宏观结构和具体细化到每个单词的微观理解。新题型和原本的词汇题相比,更注重实际运用,从单一的一句话考察上升到篇章的理解。

  解题步骤

  1) 跳读全文,抓住中心

  首先考生应该跳读全文,根据首段原则以及首末句原则,迅速抓出文章的主题。判定文章主题对于篇章的整体把握具有很大的积极意义。

  2) 阅读选项,词性分类

  接着我们要仔细阅读选项。因为选项给我们的仅仅是一个单词,而非句子或者语段,所以考试难度就大大下降了。我们应该根据词性把每个单词进行分类归纳。如名词、动词、形容词、副词、介词、连词各有几个选项。

  3) 瞻前顾后,灵活选择

  然后我们在选择时,可以根据空格中应填入的词性,大大缩小选择范围。根据上下文的内在逻辑结构选择合适的选项填空。

  4) 复读全文,谨慎调整

  填空完成后,再次复读全文,自我感觉上下文是否通顺、内在逻辑关系是否连贯。如有问题,也需要谨慎的微作调整。

  解题技巧

  1) 判定词性时可以重点分析动词的时态,即哪几个是一般时,哪几个是过去时又或者是过去分词。因为根据样题,它对考生不做选项改写要求,所以我们可以根据上下文时态对应的原则,给自己进一步缩小选择范围。

  2) 如果选项中出现指代词时,往往该选项不能放在首句,要注意指代成立的条件。

  3) 如果选项中出现一组反义词时,往往有一个是干扰选项,它注重考察的是对于文章框架结构的理解,要求考生理解整篇文章的语境色彩。

  4) 如果选项中出现一组近义词时,往往也有一个是干扰选项,它注重考察的是词汇的精确理解,要求考生分析清楚其细微的区别。

  5) 如果选项为连词时,要关注上下句内在的逻辑关系。常见的逻辑关系有:因果,并列平行,递进,强对比,前后意思一致等。

  6) 要有总体观,不必按顺序作题。先把自己最有把握的词选出,然后删除该选项,为吃不准的选项缩小选择范围。

  样题解析

  When Roberto Feliz came to the USA from the Dominican Republic, he knew only a few words of English .Education soon became a 47. “I couldn’t understand anything,” he said. He 48 from his teachers, came home in tears, and thought about dropping out.

  A) wonder I) hid
  B) acquired J) prominent
  C) consistently K) decent
  D) regained L) countless
  E) nightmare M) recalled
  F) native N) breakthrough
  G) acceptance O) automatically
  H) effective

  首先我们跳读全文,抓住文章的中心。整篇文章通过Roberto的成功例子来论证双语教育的好处。我们重点分析一下第一段,首段主题是Roberto由于不懂英语,给他产生了重大的负面作用。

  然后把选项进行归类,其中名词有E, G, N;动词包含A, B, D, I, M. 其中只有A为一般时,其余都是过去时;形容词包括F, H, J, K, L. 其中J和K意思相近;副词为C, O。

  接着我们再读原文,第47题明显应该填入一个名词,而选项中名次只有三个,我们会发现这道题目从15选1的难度已经降为3选1了。根据下文 “I couldn’t understand anything”知道上文必应填一个不好的词,那只有选E。第48题,首先这里要填一个动词,后半句出现了 came 和 thought,为了保持时态一致,该动词应该为一般过去式,只有 B 、 D 、 I 、 M 符合;其次,从意思上理解, hid from 有隐瞒、躲避某人的意思,所以该题答案选 I。确定后就可以把这两个答案从15个选项中划去,以降低以后选项的难度。大家可以根据这个方法轻松搞定后面的8个空格。
一)原因

1.A number of factors are accountable for this situation.

A number of factors might contribute to (lead to )(account for ) the phenomenon(problem).

2. The answer to this problem involves many factors.

3. The phenomenon mainly stems from the fact that...

4. The factors that contribute to this situation include...

5. The change in ...largely results from the fact that...

6. We may blame ...,but the real causes are...  

7. Part of the explanations for it is that ...

One of the most common factors (causes ) is that ...

Another contributing factor (cause ) is ...

Perhaps the primary factor is that …

But the fundamental cause is that

二)比较

1.The advantage far outweigh the disadvantages.

2.The advantages of A are much greater than those of B.

3.A may be preferable to B, but A suffers from the disadvantages that...

4.It is reasonable to maintain that ...but it would be foolish to claim that...

5.For all the disadvantages, it has its compensating advantages.   

6.Like anything else, it has its faults.

7.A and B has several points in common.

8.A bears some resemblances to B.

9.However, the same is not applicable to B.

10. A and B differ in several ways.

11. Evidently, it has both negative and positive effects.

12. People used to think ..., but things are different now.

13. The same is true of B.

14. Wondering as A is ,it has its drawbacks.

15. It is true that A ... , but the chief faults (obvious defects )are ...

三)批驳

1)It is true that ..., but one vital point is being left out.   

2) There is a grain of truth in these statements, but they ignore a more important fact.

3) Some people say ..., but it does not hold water.

4) Many of us have been under the illusion that...

5) A close examination would reveal how ridiculous the statement is.  

6) It makes no sense to argue for ...

7) Too much stress placed on ... may lead to ...

8) Such a statement mainly rests on the assumption that ...

9) Contrary to what is widely accepted, I maintain that ...

四)后果

1. It may give rise to a host of problems.

2. The immediate result it produces is ...

3. It will exercise a profound influence upon...

4. Its consequence can be so great that...

五)举例

1) A good case in point is ...

2) As an illustration, we may take ...

3) Such examples might be given easily.

4) ...is often cited as an example.

六)证明

1) No one can deny the fact that ...

2) The idea is hardly supported by facts.

3) Unfortunately, none of the available data shows ...

4) Recent studies indicate that ...

5) There is sufficient evidence to show that ...

6) According to statistics proved by ..., it can be seen that ...

七)开篇

1) Many nations have been faced with the problem of ...

2) Recently the problem has been brought into focus.

3) Recently the phenomenon has become a heated topic.

4) Recently the issue has aroused great concern among ...

5) Nowadays there is a growing concern over ...

6) Never in our history has the idea that ... been so popular.

7) Faced with ..., quite a few people argue that ...

8) According to a recent survey, ...

9) With the rapid development of ..., ...

八)结尾

1) From what has been discussed above, we can draw the conclusion that ...

2) It is high time that strict measures were taken to stop ...

3) It is necessary that steps should be taken to ...

4) In conclusion, it is imperative that ...

5) There is no easy method, but ...might be of some help.

6) To solve the above-mentioned problem, we must ...

7) In summary, if we continue to ignore the above-mentioned issue, more problems will crop up.

8) With the efforts of all parts concerned, the problem will be solved thoroughly.

9) We might do more than identify the cause ; it is important to take actions to ...

10) Taking all these into account, we ...

11) Whether it is good or not /positive or negative, one thing is certain/clear...

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