Pizza Hut was started in 1958, by two brothers in Wichita, Kansas. Frank and Dan Carney had the idea to open a pizza parlor. They borrowed $600 from their mother, and opened the very first Pizza Hut. In 1959, the first franchise unit opened in Topeka, Kansas. Almost a decade later, Pizza Hut would be serving one million customers a week in their 310 locations. In 1970, Pizza Hut was put on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol PIZ.

  In 1986, Pizza Hut introduced delivery service, something no other restaurant was doing. By the 1990's Pizza Hut sales had reached $4 billion worldwide. In 1998, Pizza Hut celebrated their 40th anniversary, and launched their famous campaign "The Best Pizzas Under One Roof." In 1996, Pizza Hut sales in the United States were over $5 million. Out of all the existing pizza chains, Pizza Hut had the largest market share, 46.4%. However, Pizza Hut's market share has slowly eroded because of intense competition from their rivals Domino's, Little Caesar's and newcomer Papa John's. Home delivery was a driving force for success, especially for Pizza Hut and Domino's.

  However, this forced competitors to look for new methods of increasing their customer bases. Many pizza chains decided to diversify and offer new non-pizza items such as buffalo wings, and Italian cheese bread. The current trend in pizza chains today is the same. They all try to come up with some newer, bigger, better, pizza for a low price. Offering special promotions and new pizza variations are popular today as well. For example, chicken is now a common topping found on pizzas.

  In the past, Pizza Hut has always had the first mover advantage. Their marketing strategy in the past has always been to be first. One of their main strategies that they still follow today is the diversification of the products they offer. Pizza Hut is always adding something new to their menu, trying to reach new markets. For example, in 1992 the famous buffet was launched in Pizza Hut restaurants worldwide. They were trying to offer many different food items for customers who didn't necessarily want pizza.

  Another strategy they used in the past and are still using is the diversification of their pizzas. Pizza Hut is always trying to come up with some innovative way to make a pizza into something slightly different - different enough that customers will think it’s a whole new product. For example, let's look at some of the pizzas Pizza Hut has marketed in the past. In 1983, Pizza Hut introduced their Pan Pizza, which had a guarantee of being ready to eat in 5 minutes when dining at Pizza Hut restaurants. In 1993, they introduced the "BigFoot," which was two square feet of pizza cut into 21 slices. In 1995, they introduced "Stuffed Crust Pizza," where the crust would be filled with cheese. In 1997, they marketed "The Edge," which had cheese and toppings all the way to the edge of the pizza. Currently, they are marketing "The Big NewYorker," trying to bring the famous New York style pizza to the whole country.

  Another opportunity that Pizza Hut has is their new ordering online system. Anyone with Internet access can order whatever they wish and get it delivered to their house without even speaking to someone. This program has just been started, so we do not have any numbers to support whether or not it will be a success.

  Lastly, Pizza Hut has always valued customer service and satisfaction. In 1995, Pizza Hut began two customer satisfaction programs: a 1-800 number customer hotline, and a customer call-back program. These were implemented to make sure their customers were happy, and always wanted to return. In our plan, we will first give a situation analysis of current and relevant environmental conditions that affect our plan. Next, we will give a brief analysis of the current fast food industry, and any trends or changes that might occur in the future.

  However, the fact that Pizza Hut does have a restaurant to run is also a weakness. Pizza Hut has higher overhead costs, due to the restaurant that other competitors don't have to deal with. Another result of higher overhead costs is higher prices Pizza Hut must charge. Obviously, Pizza Hut is not the low cost producer. They rely on their quality pizza and good service to account for their higher prices.

  An indirect weakness that Pizza Hut has is that they have lost a lot of their customers and market share due to such intense competition with competitors. Pizza Hut's opportunities are almost endless. They can increase revenue with their new innovative pizzas, and increase brand loyalty with good customer service.

  Pizza Hut's number one threats are from their competitors. Currently, their closest competitor is Domino's Pizza. Domino's main competitive advantage over Pizza Hut is their price. It is generally lower than Pizza Hut. Also, Domino's was very profitable when they ran the promotional deal of delivering a pizza within 30 minutes. However, many lawsuits have been filed against Domino's in the past for reckless driving by their drivers, so Domino's withdrew the promotion. Little Caesar's is another one of Pizza Hut's competitors, right behind Domino's in market share. Little Caesar's is famous for offering large quantities of pizza for less money. Other competitors include Papa John's, Sbarro, and Pizza Inn.

  A problem facing all of the pizza chains is that each of their individual competitive advantages are pretty much everyone's competitive advantages. Most if not all the top pizza chains offer free delivery, and always have some sort of promotional deal offering large pizzas at reduced prices. Other competitors to take into consideration are frozen pizzas and make-it-yourself pizzas that are purchased in grocery stores. Some examples of these are Tombstone Pizzas, Boboli, and Di'Gornio pizzas.

  1. Pizza Hut expanded its business into many parts of the country by the time of 1969.

  2. Pizza Hut has always dominated the market and is free of challenge.

  3. Fruits and salads are now commonly served at pizza restaurants.

  4. The diversification strategy is to be the first mover.

  5. In Pizza Hut, a Pan Pizza was ___________ to serve in 5 minutes.

  6. If you want a pizza from Pizza Hut delivered directly to your house, you have to have ________ in the first place.

  7. In order to make sure their customers were happy, Pizza Hut introduced ________________.

  8. The higher overhead costs of Pizza Hut obviously accounted for ______________.

  9. The reason why Domino’s withdrew their promotion was that they suffered legally from _____________.

  10. Major pizza makers have to face the problem that their competitive advantages are _________.
【答案见下页】
The world was stunned by the news in the summer of 1995, when a British embryologist named Ian Wilmut, and his research team, successfully cloned Dolly the sheep using the technique of nuclear transfer. Replacing the DNA of one sheep’s egg with the DNA of another sheep’s the team created Dolly. Plants and lower forms of animal life have been successfully cloned for many years, but before Wilmut's announcement, it had been thought by many to be unlikely that such a procedure could be performed on larger mammals and life forms. The world media was immediately filled with heated discussions about the ethical implications of cloning.

  Some of the most powerful people in the world have felt compelled to act against this threat. President Clinton swiftly imposed a ban on federal funding for human-cloning research. Bills were put in the works in both houses of Congress to outlaw human cloning because it was deemed as a fundamentally evil thing that must be stopped. But what, exactly, is bad about it? From an ethical point of view, it is difficult to see exactly what is wrong with cloning human beings. The people who are afraid of cloning tend to assume that someone would, for example, break into Napoleon's Tomb, steal some DNA and make a bunch of emperors. In reality, infertile people who use donated sperm, eggs, or embryos would probably use cloning. Do the potential harms outweigh the benefits of cloning? From what we know now, they don't. Therefore, we should not rush placing a ban on a potentially useful method of helping infertile, genetically at-risk, homosexual, or single people to become parents.

  Do human beings have a right to reproduce? No one has the moral right to tell another person that they should not be able to have children, and I don't see why Bill Clinton has that right either. If humans have a right to reproduce, what right does society have to limit the means? Essentially all reproduction done these days is with medical help at delivery, and even before. Truly natural human reproduction would make pregnancy-related death the number one killer of adult women.

  Some forms of medical help are more invasive than others. With in-vitro fertilization, the sperm and egg are combined in a lab and surgically implanted in the womb. Less than two decades ago, a similar concern was raised over the ethical issues involving "test-tube babies". Today, nearly 30,000 such babies have been born in the United States alone. This miracle has made many parents happy. So what principle says that one combination of genetic material in a flask is acceptable, but not another?

  Nature clones people all the time. Approximately one in 1000 births is an identical twin. However, despite how many or how few individual characteristics twins have in common, they are still different people. They have their own identities, their own thoughts, and their own rights. They enter different occupations, get different diseases, and have different experiences with marriage, alcohol, community leadership, etc. Twins have different personalities as would cloned individuals. Even if someone cloned several Napoleons, each would be different and even more unique than twins; the cloned child would be raised in a different setting. Therefore, cloning does not rob individuals of their personality.

  Perhaps the strongest ethical argument against cloning is that it could lead to a new, unfamiliar type of family relationship. We have no idea what it would be like to grow up as the child of parents who seem to know you from the inside. Some psychological characteristics may be biologically, or genetically, based. The parent would know in advance what crises a cloned teenager could go through and how he or she will respond. Because the parents may understand what the child is going through, to greater degree than most parents, it may produce a good and loving relationship in the long run. On the other hand, most children want to have their own space. Simply because a family relationship is new and untried is no reason to automatically condemn it. In the past, many types of family relationships were considered harmful, but later showed to cause no harm to the children. Among these is joint custody after divorce, gay and lesbian parenting, and interracial adoption. As with adoption, in-vitro fertilization, and the use of donor sperm, how the child will react to the news about his or her arrival in this world will depend on how the parents feel about their mode of reproduction. Parents and children may adjust to cloning far more easily than we might think, just as it happened with in-vitro fertilization.

  One recurring image in anti-cloning propaganda is of some evil dictator raising an army of cloned warriors. But who is going to raise such an army. Clones start out life as babies. It is much easier to recruit young adults than to take care of babies for twenty years. Remember that cloning isn't the same as genetic engineering. No one can make another superman and his super powers might have a slim chance of being genetically determined, but nothing is certain.

  Some might think that cloning is playing God. However, can you really say that you know God's intentions? There is substantial disagreement as to what God’s will is. Armstrong wrote, anyone who has truly proved that God exists, that God isn't only Creator, but Life-giver, Designer, Sustainer, and Ruler over all his creation, knows that the human family began with one man, and that together with him a wife, miraculously created from his own body and as unique and original a creation as Adam himself, formed the first family. Though God's miraculous creation of Eve was far from cloning, it is interesting to note in passing that God's own Word says He used Adam's rib-physical bone and tissue - to create Eve?

  Another argument against cloning is that it would only be available to the wealthy and, therefore, would increase social inequality. What else is new? This is the story of American health care. We need a better health care system, not a ban on new technologies. Hopefully our new president will help us with this problem as well.

  The U.S. Federal Government should not deem human cloning and cloning research illegal. It may provide a way for completely sterile or homosexual individuals to reproduce, and will probably provide valuable basic research and possible spin-off technologies related to reproduction and development. Our society has respected general rights to control one’s body regarding reproduction, and finally prohibiting it would violate the fundamental freedom of scientific inquiring.

  Will human cloning be done? Undoubtedly. The technique used in sheep cloning does not require a highly sophisticated laboratory. Since the United States government does not support research on human cloning, and the United Kingdom, France, and Germany have banned it, the research making cloning possible may take place in Asia, Eastern Europe, or the East. Much cloning may also take place in secret, and will occur regardless of United States policies. Approximately eighty percent of Americans feel that cloning is wrong. However, the vast majority of people, including those who rail against cloning research, owe their lives to previous medical discoveries. Don't let the forces of ignorance and fear turn us away from new types of research.

  1. Cloning large mammals and life forms had been practiced for many years by the time Dolly was cloned.

  2. The tomb of Napoleon has already been broken into and samples of genes have been collected.

  3. The introduction of human cloning may reduce a great amount of death of adult women.

  4. In-vitro fertilization is much better than natural birth in terms of safety.

  5. Identical twins can still have different personalities because they are brought up ________________.

  6. The reason why in a family with a cloned child there is likely to be a good and loving relationship is the parents’ better understanding of _______________________.

  7. Compared with cloning human and bringing them up as an army, it would be much cheaper to ______________________________.

  8. Some worry that human cloning as a potential privilege for the rich might contribute to _____________.

  9. The illegalization of human cloning by the government may erase the hope of people like _________________________.

  10. Since human cloning can not be done in the U.S., the U.K., France and Germany, researchers can still conduct their researches in Asia, Eastern Europe, or the East, or in ___________.

【答案见下页】
     2009年6月的英语六级又要到来,阅读理解一直是很多人的“痛处”,有很多小技巧,不过首先要把握好大方向。

  一、重新审视大纲要求

  要求考生阅读若干篇短文。每篇短文后有若干个问题。考生应根据文章内容得出最佳答案。

  选材原册

  1、题材广泛,可以包括人物传记、社会、文化等方面,但是所涉及的背景知识应能为学生所理解;
  2、体裁多样,可以包括说明文、议论文等;

  评析:

  在备考中,应该练习多题材的文章,包括生活话题、经济类话题、环境话题,以及还有热点话题等,熟悉各种题材的文章结构和作者的表述,特别要关注议论文的结构模式,把握议论文的逻辑顺序。

  阅读理解部分主要测试下述能力

  A。辨别和理解中心思想和重要细节
  1、理解明确表达的概念和细节、文章的总体结构以及句子和段落的关系 评析:细节题的考查方向
  2、理解隐含的表达意思(如判断、推理和总结等)评析:推论题的考查方向
  3、理解所读材料的主旨和大意(如找出能概括全文的要点等)评析:主旨题的考查方向
  4、理解作者的观点和态度 评析:态度题的考查方向
  5、理解词语(如根据上下文猜测词和短语的意思)、句间关系(如原因、结果、目的等)

  评析:猜词题的考查方向

  二、阅读过程四步走
  1、扫描题干,划出关键词。选项不要看,用时越短越好。
  2、通读全文,抓住中心。
  3、仔细审题,返回原文。关键:定位。

  定位的三大原则:
  (1)关键词定位原则:由题干出发,寻找题干中的关键词,首选大写字母、数字等,其次是表时间地点人物的词。
  (2)自然段定位原则:出题顺序与文章段落顺序大体一致。
  (3)出题点定位原则:答案一定蕴涵在有特殊标点符号、句式列举、强转折逻辑关系的地方。

  4、重叠选项,斟酌答案。
  (1)缩小范围的是答案。
  (2)扩大范围的不是答案。
  (3)原文和选项有交叉内容的不是答案。
  (4)不相关的不能选。即,只要选项中有文章中未出现内容就错。注意,将文章中的每一个选项带回文章一一查对,不要凭印象猜测。

  三、根据考纲解题型

  (一)五大解题思路

  题型一——细节题
  1. 标志:针对6w1h提问
  2. 作题的关键在于返回原文,不要凭印象作题,返回原文要有定位意识。
  3. 细节题迷惑选项的常用手段:偷换概念、扩大范围、正反混淆、颠倒因果、常识判断(列举和文章无关的常识,尽管常识是对的,但文章中未提,也是错的)
2009年6月全国英语六级考试口语考试报名工作即将开始,现将有关事宜通知如下。

  一.报名资格:

  1)  参加2005年6月至2008年12月全国大学英语四、六级考试,且四级成绩为550分以上(含550分)或六级成绩为520分以上(含520分);

  2)   参加2008年12月全国大学英语四级考试(网考)成绩为550分以上(含550分);

  3)  参加2005年1月(含)以前全国大学英语四、六级考试并已获得四、六级证书的在校学生,且四级成绩为80分以上(含80分)或六级成绩为75分以上(含75分)。

  二.考试日期:  2009年6月6、7日(两天)。

  三.报名时间:  2009年4月23日09:00时至29日16:30截止。

  四.报名方式:  口语考试采用网上报名方式。考生自主选择一个考点报名参加考试。因考点容量所限,报名额满为止。

  五.报名费:    每名考生报名费为50元。

  六.报名流程:

  第一阶段:  考生必须首先登录网站www.cet.edu.cn,进行网上报名。

  第二阶段:  网上报名成功后,考生到所报考点进行现场缴费(具体时间和地点参照相应考点公布在报名页面上的信息),领取准考证。

  七.注意事项:
  考生只能选择一个考点报名。不得重复报名。

  八.证书颁发
  考生凭准考证前往参加考试的考点当面领取口语证书。
  考试成绩公布后,证书的领取时间和地点将在www.cet.edu.cn网站上公布。不再另行邮寄。

  九. 考点列表

(注意:个别考点因特殊情况本次考试不接受报名,以报名系统显示为准)
  省、自治区、直辖市   考点名称   考点地址

  北京   清华大学   北京市 清华大学
  人民大学   北京市 人民大学
  首都师范大学 北京市 海淀区

  天津   南开大学  天津市

  河北   河北科技大学   河北省 石家庄市

  山西   太原师范学院   山西省 太原市

  内蒙古  内蒙古大学  内蒙古 呼和浩特市

  辽宁   辽宁大学   辽宁省 沈阳市
  大连理工大学  辽宁省 大连市

  黑龙江  哈尔滨  黑龙江省 哈尔滨市

  吉林   吉林大学   吉林省 长春市

  上海   复旦大学   上海市
  上海交通大学  上海市
  华东理工大学  上海市
  上海大学   上海市

  江苏   南京大学   江苏省 南京市
  东南大学   江苏省 南京市
  苏州大学   江苏省 苏州市
  徐州师范大学  江苏省 徐州市

  浙江   浙江大学   浙江省  杭州市

  安徽   中国科学技术大学  安徽省  合肥市
  安徽师范大学  安徽省  芜湖市

  福建   厦门大学   福建省  厦门市
  福建师范大学  福建省  福州市

  江西   南昌大学   江西省  南昌市

  山东   山东大学   山东省  济南市
  青岛大学   山东省  青岛市
  中国海洋大学  山东省  青岛市

  广东   中山大学   广东省  广州市
  华南理工大学  广东省  广州市

  海南   海南大学   海南省  海口市

  河南   郑州大学   河南省  郑州市
  河南工业大学  河南省  郑州市

  湖北   武汉大学   湖北省  武汉市
  华中科技大学  湖北省  武汉市
  中南财经政法大学  湖北省  武汉市
  华中师范大学  湖北省  武汉市

  湖南   湖南大学   湖南省   长沙市
  湖南师范大学  湖南省  长沙市

  广西   广西师范大学 广西   桂林市
  广西大学  广西    南宁市

  重庆   重庆大学   重庆市

  四川   四川大学   四川省  成都市
  西南交通大学  四川省  成都市

  贵州   贵州大学   贵州省 贵阳市

  云南   云南大学   云南  昆明

  陕西   西安外国语学院  陕西省  西安市
  西北工业大学  陕西省  西安市

  宁夏   宁夏大学   宁夏    银川市

  甘肃   兰州大学   甘肃省  兰州市

  新疆   新疆大学   新疆  乌鲁木齐市
2008年12月大学英语四六级考试成绩不久前公布,不少考生的成绩不理想。其中,听力部分让很多考生头疼。新学期开始了,考生要擦干眼泪,告别过去。那么,考生该做些什么呢?

掌握历年考题中出现的单词

  先举个例子:2008年12月四级考试第13题的答案是:C. Make inquiries elsewhere. (去别处问问), 其原文对应点为:Have you inquired the apartment complex down the street?

  inquire在以往四级考试中考过多次:

  2007年12月:长对话部分 第25题。 A lively personality and enquiring mind.

  2007年6月:听写部分 第43题原文Inquire why John or Mary…

  2003年6月: 小对话部分 第6题原文。 I haven’t got my scores of GRE test yet; do you think I should call to make inquiries?

  这些例子说明,如果考生把这几年的考题里听力部分的单词短语全部背会、“搞定”,这道题必然得分。

  首先,确认听力题目中选项和原文部分中所有的单词含义全部查阅清楚,不留死角,并且保证能够拼写准确;其次,能够用查阅得到的含义翻译和解释对应的句子,确认所有的对话或篇章语段全部理解;最后,确认在脱离书本的情况下,依然能够听懂查阅过的单词和短语,并且能够进一步听懂对应的句子以及段落和篇章。

  建议考生按以上标准,选择四六级从2005年至2008年12月考题,挑出听力的部分,扫除单词障碍。听力部分的词汇向来属于高频词汇,另外,令大家倍感头疼的复合式听写单词都能够在之前听力部分中找到原型。

以2008年12月的四六级考试小对话为例,分析短语的考察情况。

  四级部分:drop sb a line(打电话), make up your mind about sth(决定某事), acquired a taste for (喜欢), I was up till 3 this morning(忙到凌晨3点)。六级部分: in vain(徒劳), be opposed to (反对), be supposed to(应该), wipe it up (擦掉)。

  短语是生词和熟词的搭配,经常会有固定而非字面的含义。一旦意义理解偏差或反应迟钝,做题就会出现问题。由于短语的总数量要比单词少,所以建议考生扩大短语储备范围。例如四六级往年试题的阅读和完形就是很好的材料。考生可将做过的阅读和完形题目中的短语细心积累,为听力短语打下基础。

  多做听写练习

  复合式听写已经成为听力题目中难度最大的部分。听写部分很容易拉开考生分数上的差距。下面是2008年四级听写句子部分的答案:

  第44题:Changing national borders, greater economic growth and the lack of accepted social ideas of right and wrong. (改变国界,更快的经济增长以及缺乏对正反社会观点的接受)

  第45题:Are now facing the sort of cultural variety that has been common in America for most of its history.(正在面对某种在美国漫长历史中很常见的文化多样性)

  这两句话对考生来说,阅读和翻译都有一定难度,听写更是难上加难,基础一般的考生得分将会非常有限。一直以来,部分考生的功利心态造成备考的短线化和浅层次。殊不知,听写是最能考察听力的形式。现在距考试还有3个多月,建议考生踏实地练习听写能力:至少听写20道至30道短对话题目的原文部分,听写8篇至10篇短文听力的原文部分,听不懂或不清楚可以多放几遍,但是一定要坚持,写完后自我检查,然后再对照原文,切忌在听写过程中翻看原文。

  为考试改革做准备

  从2008年12月起,四六级机考已经在全国试点。虽然目前还没有确定的考试信息,但考生还是要做好准备。考生可以从以下几点进行准备:在计算机上练习自己的英文写作,最好不要在Word模式下练习,因为其单词纠错功能不利于考生拼写能力的提高。用跟读四六级听力的方式来纠正口音,磨练口语。在反复跟读熟练之后尝试复述或者背诵。拓宽视野,用英美电影或电视剧的材料来训练英文。注意少而精,最好能够反复揣摩精彩段落,确认能够完全听懂而不是靠中文字幕提醒。调整心态,把准备考试和学习英语提高素质结合起来。
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