Women’s Positions in the 17th Century

  Social circumstances in Early Modern England mostly served to repress women’s voices. Patriarchal culture and institutions constructed them as chaste, silent, obedient, and subordinate. At the beginning of the 17th century, the ideology of patriarchy, political absolutism, and gender hierarchy were reaffirmed powerfully by King James in The Trew Law of Free Monarchie and the Basilikon Doron; by that ideology the absolute power of God the supreme patriarch was seen to be imaged in the absolute monarch of the state and in the husband and father of a family. Accordingly, a woman’s subjection, first to her father and then to her husband, imaged the subjection of English people to their monarch, and of all Christians to God. Also, the period saw an outpouring of repressive or overtly misogynist sermons, tracts, and plays, detailing women’s physical and mental defects, spiritual evils, rebelliousness, shrewish ness, and natural inferiority to men.

  Yet some social and cultural conditions served to empower women. During the Elizabethan era (1558—1603) the culture was dominated by a powerful Queen, who provided an impressive female example though she left scant cultural space for other women. Elizabethan women writers began to produce original texts but were occupied chiefly with translation. In the 17th century, however, various circumstances enabled women to write original texts in some numbers. For one thing, some counterweight to patriarchy was provided by female communities—mothers and daughters, extended kinship networks, close female friends, the separate court of Queen Anne (King James’ consort) and her often oppositional masques and political activities. For another, most of these women had a reasonably good education (modern languages, history, literature, religion, music, occasionally Latin) and some apparently found in romances and histories more expansive terms for imagining women’s lives. Also, representation of vigorous and rebellious female characters in literature and especially on the stage no doubt helped to undermine any monolithic social construct of women’s mature and role.

  Most important, perhaps, was the radical potential inherent in the Protestant insistence on every Christian’s immediate relationship with God and primary responsibility to follow his or her individual conscience. There is plenty of support in St Paul’s epistles and elsewhere in the Bible for patriarchy and a wife’s subjection to her husband, but some texts (notably Galatians 3:28) inscribe a very different politics, promoting women’s spiritual equality: “There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Jesus Christ.” Such texts encouraged some women to claim the support of God the supreme patriarch against the various earthly patriarchs who claimed to stand toward them in his stead.

  There is also the gap or slippage between ideology and common experience. English women throughout the 17th century exercised a good deal of accrual power: as managers of estates in their husbands’ absences at court or on military and diplomatic missions; as members of guilds; as wives and mothers who apex during the English Civil War and Interregnum (1640-60) as the execution of the King and the attendant disruption of social hierarchies led many women to seize new roles—as preachers, as prophetesses, as deputies for exiled royalist husbands, as writers of religious and political tracts.

  1. What is the best title for this passage?
  [A]. Women’s Position in the 17th Century.
  [B]. Women’s Subjection to Patriarchy.
  [C]. Social Circumstances in the 17th Century.
  [D]. Women’s objection in the 17th Century.
  2. What did the Queen Elizabeth do for the women in culture?
  [A]. She set an impressive female example to follow.
  [B]. She dominated the culture.
  [C]. She did little.
  [D]. She allowed women to translate something.
  3. Which of the following is Not mention as a reason to enable women to original texts?
  [A].Female communities provided some counterweight to patriarchy.
  [B]. Queen Anne’s political activities.
  [C]. Most women had a good education.
  [D]. Queen Elizabeth’s political activities.
  4. What did the religion so for the women?
  [A]. It did nothing.
  [B]. It too asked women to be obedient except some texts.
  [C]. It supported women.
  [D]. It appealed to the God.




Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)

Directions:  For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay entitled Should Parents Send Their Kids to Art Classes? You should write at least 150 words following the outline given below.

1. 现在有不少家长送孩子参加各种艺术班
2. 对这种做法有人表示支持,也有人并不赞成
3. 我认为……
Should Parents Send Their Kids to Art Classes?  www.cet6.net

Part ⅡReading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning) (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1. For questions 1-7, choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage.

  Recent research has claimed that an excess of positive ions in the air can have an ill effect on people’s physical or psychological health. What are positive ions? Well, the air is full of ions, electrically charged particles, and generally there is a rough balance between the positive and the negative charged. But sometimes this balance becomes disturbed and a larger proportion of positive ions are found. This happens naturally before thunderstorm, earthquakes when winds such as the Mistral, Hamsin or Sharav are blowing in certain countries. Or it can be caused by a build-up of static electricity indoors from carpets or clothing made of man-made fibres, or from TV sets, duplicators or computer display screens.

  When a large number of positive ions are present in the air many people experience unpleasant effects such as headaches, fatigue, irritability, and some particularly sensitive people suffer nausea or even mental disturbance. Animals are also affected, particularly before earthquakes, snakes have been observed to come out of hibernation, rats to flee from their burrows, dogs howl and cats jump about unaccountably. This has led the US Geographical Survey to fund a network of volunteers to watch animals in an effort to foresee such disasters before they hit vulnerable areas such as California.

  Conversely, when large numbers of negative ions are present, then people have a feeling of well-being. Natural conditions that produce these large amounts are near the sea, close to waterfalls or fountains, or in any place where water is sprayed, or forms a spray. This probably accounts for the beneficial effect of a holiday by the sea, or in the mountains with tumbling streams or waterfalls.

  To increase the supply of negative ions indoors, some scientists recommend the use of ionisers: small portable machines, which generate negative ions. They claim that ionisers not only clean and refresh the air but also improve the health of people sensitive to excess positive ions. Of course, there are the detractors, other scientists, who dismiss such claims and are skeptical about negative/positive ion research. Therefore people can only make up their own minds by observing the effects on themselves, or on others, of a negative rich or poor environment. After all it is debatable whether depending on seismic readings to anticipate earthquakes is more effective than watching the cat.

  1.What effect does exceeding positive ionization have on some people?
  A.They think they are insane.
  B.They feel rather bad-tempered and short-fussed.
  C.They become violently sick.
  D.They are too tired to do anything.

  2.In accordance with the passage, static electricity can be caused by___.
  A.using home-made electrical goods.
  B.wearing clothes made of natural materials.
  C.walking on artificial floor coverings.
  D.copying TV programs on a computer.

  3.A high negative ion count is likely to be found___.
  A.near a pound with a water pump.
  B.close to a slow-flowing river.
  C.high in some barren mountains.
  D.by a rotating water sprinkler.

  4.What kind of machine can generate negative ions indoors?
  D.Vacuum pumps.

  5.Some scientists believe that___.
  A.watching animals to anticipate earthquakes is more effective than depending on seismography.
  B.the unusual behavior of animals cannot be trusted.
  C.neither watching nor using seismographs is reliable.
  A study of art history might be a good way to learn more about a culture than is possible to learn in general history classes. Most typical history courses concentrate on politics, economics, and war. But art history focuses on much more than this because art reflects not only the political values of a people, but also religious beliefs, emotions, and psychology. In addition, information about the daily activities of our ancestors—or of people very different from our own—can be provided by art. In short, art expresses the essential qualities of a time and a place, and a study of it clearly offer us a deeper understanding than can be found in most history books.

  In history books, objective information about the political life of a country is presented; that is, facts about politics are given, but opinions are not expressed. Art, on the other hand, is subjective: it reflects emotions and opinions. The great Spanish painter Francisco Goya was perhaps the first truly “political” artist. In his well-known painting The Third of May 1808, he criticized the Spanish government for its misuse of power over people. Over a hundred years later, symbolic images were used in Pablo Picasso’s Guernica to express the horror of war. Meanwhile, on another continent, the powerful paintings of Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco, and David Alfaro Siqueiros—as well as the works of Alfredo Ramos Martines—depicted these Mexican artists’ deep anger and sadness about social problems.

  In the same way, art can reflect a culture’s religious beliefs. For hundreds of years in Europe, religious art was almost the only type of art that existed. Churches and other religious buildings were filled with paintings that depicted people and stories from the Bible. Although most people couldn’t read, they could still understand biblical stories in the pictures on church walls. By contrast, one of the main characteristics of art in the Middle East was (and still is) its absence of human and animal images. This reflects the Islamic belief that statues are unholy.

  1.More can be learned about a culture from a study of art history than general history because art history__.
  A.show us the religious and emotions of a people in addition to political values.
  B.provide us with information about the daily activities of people in the past.
  C.give us an insight into the essential qualities of a time and a place.
  D.all of the above.

  2.Art is subjective in that__.
  A.a personal and emotional view of history is presented through it.
  B.it can easily rouse our anger or sadness about social problems.
  C.it will find a ready echo in our hearts.
  D.both B and C.

  3.Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
  A.Unlike Francisco Goya, Pablo and several Mexican artists expressed their political opinions in their paintings.
  B.History books often reveal the compilers’ political views.
  C.Religious art remained in Europe for centuries the only type of art because most people regarded the Bible as the Holy Book.
  D.All the above mentioned.

  4.The passage is mainly discussing__.
  A.the difference between general history and art history.
  B.The making of art history.
  C.What can we learn from art.
  D.The influence of artists on art history.

  5.In may be concluded from this passage that__.
  A.Islamic artists have had to create architectural decorations with images of flowers or geometric forms.
  B.History teachers are more objective than general history.
  C.It is more difficult to study art history than general history.
  D.People and stories from the Bible were painted on churches and other buildings in order to popularize the Bible.
  Once it was possible to define male and female roles easily by the division of labor. Men worked outside the home and earned the income to support their families, while women cooked the meals and took care of the home and the children. These roles were firmly fixed for most people, and there was not much opportunity for women to exchange their roles. But by the middle of this century, men’s and women’s roles were becoming less firmly fixed.

  In the 1950s, economic and social success was the goal of the typical American. But in the 1960s a new force developed called the counterculture. The people involved in this movement did not value the middle-class American goals. The counterculture presented men and women with new role choices. Taking more interest in childcare, men began to share child-raising tasks with their wives. In fact, some young men and women moved to communal homes or farms where the economic and childcare responsibilities were shared equally by both sexes. In addition, many Americans did not value the traditional male role of soldier. Some young men refused to be drafted as soldiers to fight in the war in Vietnam.

  In terms of numbers, the counterculture was not a very large group of people. But its influence spread to many parts of American society. Working men of all classes began to change their economic and social patterns. Industrial workers and business executives alike cut down on “overtime” work so that they could spend more leisure time with their families. Some doctors, lawyers, and teachers turned away from high paying situations to practice their professions in poorer neighborhoods.

  In the 1970s, the feminist movement, or women’s liberation, produced additional economic and social changes. Women of all ages and at all levels of society were entering the work force in greater numbers. Most of them still took traditional women’s jobs as public school teaching, nursing, and secretarial work. But some women began to enter traditionally male occupations: police work, banking, dentistry, and construction work. Women were asking for equal work, and equal opportunities for promotion.

  Today the experts generally agree that important changes are taking place in the roles of men and women. Naturally, there are difficulties in adjusting to these transformations.

  1.Which of the following best express the main idea of Paragraph 1?
  A.Women usually worked outside the home for wages.
  B.Men and women’s roles were easily exchanged in the past.
  C.Men’s roles at home were more firmly fixed than women’s.
  D.Men and women’s roles were usually quite separated in the past.
  2.Which sentence best expresses the main idea of Paragraph 2?
  A.The first sentence.
  B.The second and the third sentences.
  C.The fourth sentence.
  D.The last sentence.
  3.In the passage the author proposes that the counterculture___.
  A.destroyed the United States.
  B.transformed some American values.
  C.was not important in the United States.
  D.brought people more leisure time with their families.
  4.It could be inferred from the passage that___.
  A.men and women will never share the same goals.
  B.some men will be willing to exchange their traditional male roles.
  C.most men will be happy to share some of the household responsibilities with their wives.
  D.more American households are headed by women than ever before.
  5.The best title for the passage may be ___.
  A.Results of Feminist Movements
  B.New influence in American Life
  C.Counterculture and Its consequence
  D.Traditional Division of Male and Female Roles.
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