Economic Development and Environmental Protection


  Economic Development and Environmental Protection

  Economic development and environmental protection are a pressing issue primarily for developing countries where, in trying to catch up with developed countries, they have to consume natural resources on an unprecedented scale. This has seriously polluted our environment and, with the global environmental campaign gaining momentum, many people in China call for the precedence of environmental protection over economic development.

  Any attempt to pose economic development and environmental protection as diametrically contradictory is simple-minded. Since no country is willing to stop its economic development, the best way is to strike a balance between the two and to heighten the environmental awareness of those solely concerned with economic development.

  European countries both economically developed and environmentally friendly can serve as perfect examples for China. Their success story in both undertakings illustrates that environmental protection does not mean a complete standstill of economic activities or exploitation of natural resources, but rather an active development and application of effective technologies to minimize environmental consequences. In Germany, environmental protection has become part of economic development as it boasts the world’s most successful environmental industry. With a developed economy, we are well equipped to develop sophisticated technologies that can effectively safeguard our environment.

  The relationship between economic development and environment protection is a complex one. For modern men, neither a primitive society which is perfectly ecologically friendly nor an industrial civilization which is ecologically hostile is what we want. Environmental problems arise as a result of industrialization and only technologies can deliver solutions to those problems. Rather than simply returning to the past of non-human activity, we can seek active technological solutions in solar energy and wind energy to replace fossil fuels. By the time this key contributor to environmental deterioration is eradicated, man will achieve a win-win result between economic development and environmental protection.

  On the Overdependence of China’s College Students on Their Parents


  On the Overdependence of China’s College Students on Their Parents
  In the United States, students generally seek an independent life at 18. They take on part-time jobs, live away from their parents, and finance their own education partially, if not completely. Upon graduation, they find a job, or launch their own business by filing for loans from the bank. They live in rented apartments even after marriage and buy a house only when they can afford it. This is a typical pattern how the American younger generation grows up.
  By contrast, most college students in present-day China, as the sole children of their families, take for granted their excessive dependence upon their parents. They hold their parents responsible for furnishing them with all the tuitions and living expenses. They seldom work part-time to alleviate their parents of their burdens. They have expensive dinners and birthday celebrations with their parents’ hard-earned money through months of hard work.
  In recent years, under the pretext of employment difficulty, some students return home to live with their parents after graduation. While their parents are busy at work, they idle away their time day after day, least concerned with finding a job to have their own source of income. Worse still, they exhaust every penny of their parents and even grandparents to buy an apartment for their own enjoyment. In doing so, they even plunge their parents into serious debts.
  This group of students have come to acquire an infamous name—“the Elderly-Devouring Community”. A more understandable phrase might be “parasites”. This community has come into existence as a result of long-time over-indulgence on the part of parents and the indolence and selfishness on the part of students themselves. Compared with their American counterparts, Chinese students should feel ashamed of themselves and take immediate actions to terminate their elderly-devouring behavior and become independent and self-reliant.

  【参考译文】 见下页
  As Toyota and Hummer have learned, growing too fast can be a dangerous thing.
  From its origins, success in the auto industry has been about scale. In the early decades of the 20th century, Henry Ford was able to democratize the car and dominate the early auto industry because he built, and then continually improved, an assembly line that could make huge numbers of cars in a short amount of time. Bigger was always better.
  But two items from yesterday’s dispatch in the ongoing car dramas indicate why that’s not always true.
  Item No. 1: The Toyota debacle (失败). The mass failings of Toyota’s legendary quality-control efforts are now on full display in the hearings that have subjected CEO Akio Toyoda to a ritualized set of apologies and humiliations (羞辱). In recent years Toyota rode its efficiency and better financial management — it didn’t have to contend with the burdensome pension and health-care benefits that sandbagged the Big Three (i.e. General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler) — to large gains in market share and significant growth. In 2007 Toyota surpassed GM as the largest carmaker in the world.
  But something got lost in the process. As Toyoda acknowledged on Wednesday: “I fear the pace at which we have grown may have been too quick. I would like to point out here that Toyota’s priority has traditionally been: first, safety; second, quality; and third, volume. These priorities became confused.” In other words, Toyoda seemed to admit, the company went wrong by moving size — i.e., volume — to the front of the line.
  Item No. 2: After a series of failed efforts to sell it, GM announced that its Hummer brand would be wound down. Hummer had a different problem with bigness than Toyota has. It wasn’t that its production volumes were too high. In 2008 only 2,710 Hummers were sold. Rather, the outsize Hummer was simply too big — too inefficient, too out of step with the times — to succeed in a marketplace in which oil spiked to $150 per barrel and seems to have settled at a plateau above $70 a barrel. As the economy tanked, energy prices rose, and the spirit of the time shifted in favor of conservation, the gas-guzzling Hummer faced a double whammy (厄运): consumers had difficulty affording the vehicle’s high list price as well as difficulty affording its high operating price.
  Size does matter when it comes to auto production. But not always in the way manufacturers think.
  1. The example of Henry Ford’s assembly line suggests that the success in the auto industry was built on__________ .
  2. According to the author, Toyota’s fast growth in recent years was attributed to__________ .
  3. CEO Akio Toyoda seemed to admit that Toyota betrayed its tradition of putting __________at top priority.
  4. According to the passage, GM decided to gradually bring its Hummer brand to an end because of __________ .
  5. According to the passage, whether purchasing or operating a Hummer, consumers found it hard to __________ .




  “听力”作为一种能力讲,本身是一个传播的过程,信息的接收是一个重要的过程。远在1948年,拉斯维尔于题为《传播在社会中的结构与功能》(The Structure and Function of Communication in Society)一文中首次提出了构成传播过程的五种基本要素,即着名的5W理论。这五个W分别是英语中五个疑问代词的第一个字母,即:

  Who (谁)

  Says What (说了什么)

  In Which Channel (通过什么渠道)

  To Whom (向谁说)

  With What Effect (有什么效果)

  听力的过程也是传播的过程,这就意味着,在听的过程,我们也需要这样的“思维经历”。实际上,在听的过程完全可以遵循这个脉络,从who入手,说话人中,重要的说话信息一般在第二说话人中,他说了什么,是我们做题的重点,即所谓的关键词。通过的途径一般有两种,conversation与paragraph,to whom 就是我们自己,而效果的考核就是我们题目。分析至此,可以发现,即使我们空缺中间say what 的过程,也可以得到至少四个过程,而最后一个过程效果分析,是可以通过四、六级考题出现的。

  所以,我们的听力考试实际上是逆向思维的过程,即了解了效果,通过效果推测原文,再将say what 过程补充出来。


  A) The errors will be corrected soon.

  B) The woman was mistaken herself.

  C) The computing system is too complex

  D) He has called the woman several times.

  四个选项,分别告诉我们A:“这个错误很快会被纠正”;B:“这位女士自己错了”;C:“计算机体系太复杂”;D:“他给这位女士打了好几次电话”。显而易见,最后一个选项是在叙述过程,只有前三个选项是结果,而这三个选项都透露了一个信息,就是原文一定提到了一个错误,B、C 在讨论错误点,而A告诉了我们结果,我们的倾向选项应该是A。
  There he was America’s first President with a MBA, the man who loves to boast about his business background, whose presidential campaign raised unprecedented sums from corporate wallets and whose cabinet is stuffed with chief executives. Faith in the integrity of American business leaders was being undermined(破坏), George Bush said fiercely, by executives "breaching trust and abusing power". It was time for "a new ethic of personal responsibility in the business community". He was going to "end the days of cooking the books, shading the truth and breaking our laws"。

  Only months ago, the idea that George W Bush would publicly lambaste America’s cooperate bosses was laughable. As a candidate, born on the wave of a decade-long economic boom and an unprecedented 18-year bull market, he cashed in on American’s love affair with corporate success. But things are different now. The stock market bubble has burst and, despite signs of economic recovery. Wall Street seems to be sunk in gloom. A string of scandals at some of America’s most high-flying firms--including Enron, Xerox. Tyco, Global Crossing and most recently, World Com??has radically changed the public mood。

  As political pressure for reform increases, so too does the heat on Mr Bush. Is the businessman’s president really prepared to take business on and push hard for reform? Despite the set jaw and aggrieved tone in New York. Probably not. Mr. Bush thinks the current crisis stems from a few bad-apple chief executives rather than the system as a whole. Hence he focus on tough penalties for corrupt businessmen and his plea for higher ethical standards. The president announced the creation of a financial-crimes SWAT team, at the Justice Department to root out corporate fraud, and wants to double the maximum prison sentence for financial fraud from five to ten years. But he offered few concrete suggestions for systemic reform: little mention of changes to strengthen shareholders’ rights, not even an endorsement of the Senate corporate-reform bill。

  There are few signs yet that cleaning up corporate America is an issue that animates the voters. Polls show that Americans have little faith in their business leaders, but politicians do not seem to be suffering as a result. Mr. Bush’s approval ratings have fallen from their sky-highs, but they are still very strong。

  The president, therefore, need do no more than talk tough. This alone will convince ordinary Americans that he is on top of the issue. As the economy rebounds and public outage subsides, the clamor for change will be quieter. Democratic attacks will fizzle, and far-reaching reform bills will be watered down before they become law. Politically, the gamble makes sense. Unfortunately for American capitalism, a great opportunity will be missed。

  1 We can infer from the third paragraph that Mr. Bush______。
  A) didn’t intend to take business on and push hard for reform
  B) did not do anything at all for the presence of the current situation
  C) took shareholders’ right into account, but he didn’t approve reform bill
  D) took some measures to pave the way for the reform
  2. According to the passage, which of the following statements is TRUE?
  A) Bush had to offer concrete suggestions for reform as political pressure increase
  B) At present, the maximum prison sentence for financial fraud is five year
  C) It is laughable that M Bush publicly attacked America’s corporate bosses
  D) Americans have little faith in their business as well as political leaders
  3. Which of the following statements about Mr. Bush is mentioned in this passage?
  A) M Bush is the second President with an MBA in American history
  B) M Bush contributes a lot to decade-long economic boom
  C) M Bush’s approval ratings are still high D) M Bush didn’t get support in his presidential campaign
  4 The author’s attitude towards the reform is______。
  A) indifferent B) optimistic C) skeptical D) favorable
  5. The phrase "a great opportunity" mentioned in the last paragraph refers to an opportunity to______。
  A) carry out reform B) boom economy C) animate the voters D) attack chief executive
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