We all know that the normal human daily cycle of activity is of some 7-8 hours’ sleep alternation with some 16-17 hours’wakefulness and that, broadly speaking, the sleep normally coincides with the hours of darkness. Our present concern is with how easily and to what extent this cycle can be modified.
  The question is no mere academic one. The ease, for example, with which people can change from working in the day to working at night is a question of growing importance in industry where automation calls for round-the-clock working of machines. It normally takes from five days to one week for a person to adapt to a reversed routine of sleep and wakefulness, sleeping during the day and working at night. Unfortunately, it is often the case in industry that shifts are changed every week; a person may work from 12:00 midnight to 8:00 a.m. one week, 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. the next, and 4:00p.m. to 12:00 midnight the third and so on. This means that no sooner has he got used to one routine than he has to change to another, so that much of his time is spent neither working nor sleeping very efficiently.
  The only real solution appears to be to hand over the night shift to a number of permanent night workers. An interesting study of the domestic life and health of night-shift workers was carried out by Brown in 1957. She found a high incidence of disturbed sleep and other disorders among those on alternating day and night shifts, but no abnormal occurrence of these phenomena among those on permanent night work.
  This latter system then appears to be the best long-term policy, but meanwhile something may be done to relieve the strains of alternate day and night work by selecting those people who can adapt most quickly to the changes of routine. One way of knowing when a person has adapted is by measuring his body temperature. People engaged in normal daytime work will have a high temperature during the hours of wakefulness and a low one at night; when they change to night work, the pattern will only gradually go back to match the new routine and the speed with which it does so parallels, broadly speaking, the adaptation of the body as a whole, particularly in terms of performance. Therefore, by taking body temperature at intervals of two hours throughout the period of wakefulness it can be seen how quickly a person can adapt to a reversed routine, and this could be used as a basis for selection. So far, however, such a form of selection does not seem to have been applied in practice. (445 words)
引用
  1. The main problem of the round-the-clock working system lies in _______.
  A. the disturbance of the daily cycle of workers who have to change shifts too frequently
  B. the inconveniences brought about to the workers by the introduction of automation
  C. the fact that people working at night are often less effective
  D. the fact that it is difficult to find a number of good night workers
  2. The best solution to implementing the 24-hour working system seems ________.
  A. to employ people who work on night shifts only
  B. to create better living conditions for night workers
  C. to change shifts at longer intervals
  D. to have longer shifts
  3. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
  A. Body temperature may serve as an indication of a worker’s performance.
  B. The employment of permanent night shift workers seems to be the best solution to problems of the round-the-clock working system.
  C. Taking body temperature at regular intervals can show how a person adapts to the changes of routine.
  D. Disturbed sleep occurs more frequently among shift workers.
  4. It is possible to find out if a person has adapted to the changes of routine by measuring his body temperature because ________.
  A. body temperature changes when the cycle of sleep and wakefulness alternates
  B. body temperature changes when he changes to night shift or back
  C. the temperature reverses when the routine is changed.
  D. people have higher temperature when they are working efficiently.
  5. The phrase “coincide with”(Line 3, Para.1) could best be replaced by _______.
  A. take place
  B. agree with
  C. accord to
  D. take up
引用
  [答案]
    1. B 推理引申题。第二段中提到人适应新习惯需要五天到一个礼拜的时间,但事实是工人的正常生活节奏经常处于被扰乱的状态,使工作和睡眠效率不佳。所以,正确考试*大答案为B。
  2. A 事实细节题。根据第三段第一句“The only real solution appears…night workers”
  3. A 事实细节题。最后一段提到“…by taking body temperature…can be seen how quickly a person can adapt to a reversed routine”。
  4. C 推理引申题。最后一段指出体温与人处于醒着的状态还是睡眠状态的关系,只有C与原文相符。
  5. B 词意猜测题。意思是“与……一致”。
改错的形式有三种:

错词>=6个,漏词,多词<=4个

错误类型:

1、名词:单复数用错,可数不可数的混用,大多数改错常有此类错误。
On the way up I was busy taking picture since the scenery was so beautiful.

2、冠词:定冠词the及不定冠词的多余和缺失
As everyone knows, it’s famous mountain with all kinds of plants and animals.

3、动词:时态和全文一致;小心被动语态;多个动词同时出现时,考虑用非谓
Soon I began to enjoy talk to myself on paper as I was learning to express me in simple English.

4、主谓一致:非谓语动词做主语,动词应该为单数;并列名词做主语,动词用复数;小心就近一致
Now my picture and the prize is hanging in the library.

5、形容词,副词:形容词和副词词性的混用;
I would describe myself as shy and quietly.

6、介词:多余,缺失或错用,根据上下文做调整,更多靠平时积累的固定搭配
We must keep in mind that we play for the team instead ourselves.

7、连词: 上下文逻辑关系

8、代词:人称代词前后指代不一致;反身代词和人称代词的误用;关系代词的误用that, what等
I was learning to express me in simple English.

9、并列的平行结构:both…and…, not only… but also, prefer to do rather than do

10、固定搭配

方法:

    在做改错题时,首先要通读短文,对文章有最基本的了解之后,以行为单位逐词寻找以上提到的错误类型。
鉴于动词出错的频率较高,并且在句中起到举足轻重的作用,考生可以考虑先从动词下手寻找错我。例如每句话先看动词,马上判断时态、语态,如没有错误,可以向前寻找主语,考量主谓是否一致。因此寻找错误的顺序,可以概括为一下口诀:

3. 短文改错解题秘诀
  见到动词找主语
  动词很多想非谓
  见到名词单复数
  名词前面冠词配
  见到介词想搭配
  多漏错误不一定
  见到定状看词性
  形副词性总混用
  见到连词想逻辑
  转折因果肯否定
  见到代词找指代
  指代通常不一致
  见到平行看结构
形式功能要对称
完形填空考点

1、固定搭配:动介搭配,介名搭配等

2、词意辨析:形近词,意近词,形近意似词

It is an immensely complex______ that we take for granted.
A process B progress
C product D prospect
四个词为形近词,但从语意上看,和“complex复杂的”,搭配最恰当的只有“process过程”
B 前进,进步C 产品D 前景
Families__1__many as 10 people have had to shelter__2__a single tent and share cookstoves and bathing___3__with neighbors.
1. A like B as C so D too
2. A by B below C under D with
3. A facilities   B instruments
  C implements D appliances

Q1题纯属固定搭配;Q2 根据句意选择“在帐篷下遮蔽” Q3难度较大,近义词辨析:

B通常和乐器搭配musical instruments
C farm implements 农具
D electric appliances 家用电器
A facility: rooms, services or equipment that are provided for particular purposes 设备,设施

This point in that cycle at which you wake can ___ how you feel later.
A effect  B affect
C reflect  D perfect

3、通过形近意似的原则,可以判断答案在A,B之间,而横线之前是can,所以选动词affect
逻辑关系:转折让步,递进,对比,因果,并列(增补,转折,选择,因果),举例
转折让步词:
however, nevertheless, yet, still(然而), though, in spite of , despite,regardless of (尽管,即使)
递进词:besides, in addition, moreover, furthermore, what’s more(此外), even(甚至)
对比词:in contrast, on the contrary,  on the other hand, instead (相反)
因果词:because, since, due to, owing to, because of, therefore,consequently
并列 (增补):also, as well as (并且)
not only … but also … (不但,而且)
both … and …
neither … nor …
并列(转折):but, while
并列(选择):or, either……or……, whether……or……
并列(因果):for(因为), so(所以)
举例:for example, for instance, such as  

4、上下文意思衔接:高频原则,简单原则
For this reason, they _1_students to meet others with differing _2_ and to read widely to _3_ their understanding in many fields of study.

  1.A prompt   B provoke
     C encourage D anticipate
  2.A histories  B expression
     C interests  D curiosities
  3.A broaden  B lengthen
     C enforce   D specify

完形填空做题步骤:

1、第一遍,边阅读全文,边做出2-3个固定搭配。阅读的时候,千万不要急于看文章后每个题目的选项,应该对空格所在的上下文仔细阅读,预测可能出现的答案。如果选项中某一个与预测的答案接近或一致,那么答案十有八九是这个选项
2、了解大意之后,其余的选项方可以句子为单位,或以上下一句为背景,在词意,词性,搭配和用法上对词语进行辨析
3、遇到逻辑关系的选项,转折首选,递进其次
4、留意横线之前的and, 小心前后呼应,借用相似相反相近原则

_1_ overnight, scores of tent villages bloomed _2_ the region, tended by international aid organizations, military _3_ and aid groups working day and night to shelter the survivors before winter set _4_.
Mercifully, the season was mild. But with the _5__ of spring, the refugees will be moved again.
   1.A altogether B almost
      C scarcely  D surely
   2.A among   B above
  C amid    D across  
   3.A ranks    B equipment
        C personnel D installations
   4.A out      B in
     C on      D forth
   5.A falling   B emergence
      C arrival   D appearing

感恩节英文介绍

[不指定 08/11/27 20:59 | by admin ]
      Thanksgiving Day is the most truly American of the national Holidays in the United States and is most closely connected with the earliest history of the country.

In 1620, the settlers, or Pilgrims, they sailed to America on the May flower, seeking a place where they could have freedom of worship. After a tempestuous two-month voyage they landed at in icy November, what is now Plymouth, Massachusetts.

During their first winter, over half of the settlers died of[1] starvation or epidemics. Those who survived began sowing in the first spring.

All summer long they waited for the harvests with great anxiety, knowing that their lives and the future existence of the colony depended on the coming harvest. Finally the fields produced a yield rich beyond expectations. And therefore it was decided that a day of thanksgiving to the Lord be fixed[2]. Years later, President of the United States proclaimed the fourth Thursday of November as Thanksgiving Day every year. The celebration of Thanksgiving Day has been observed on that date until today.

The pattern of the Thanksgiving celebration has never changed through the years. The big family dinner is planned months ahead. On the dinner table, people will find apples, oranges, chestnuts, walnuts and grapes. There will be plum pudding, mince pie, other varieties of food and cranberry juice and squash. The best and most attractive among them are roast turkey and pumpkin pie. They have been the most traditional and favorite food on Thanksgiving Day throughout the years.

Everyone agrees the dinner must be built around roast turkey stuffed with a bread dressing[3] to absorb the tasty juices as it roasts. But as cooking varies with families and with the regions where one lives, it is not easy to get a consensus on[4] the precise kind of stuffing for the royal bird.

Thanksgiving today is, in every sense, a national annual holiday on which Americans of all faiths and backgrounds join in to express their thanks for the year' s bounty and reverently ask for continued[5] blessings.
  一、考试流程
      请见:http://www.cet6.net/post/102/

  二、考试的注意事项

  1、注意考试时间,提前15分钟一定要到达考场,等候考试。

  2、备齐文具,特别是2B铅笔,以及黑色水笔,因为作文是先扫描然后网上阅卷,因此笔迹一定要清晰。

  3、收音机的问题。(事先了解好自己所在学校是收音机放音还是公共广播)

  4. 时间分配:在做完听力后,剩下的仔细阅读部分、综合部分(可能考改错,也可能是完形)以及翻译部分的时间分配由自己决定。建议,首先做5道题目的翻译,这个比较简单,容易拿分,一般建议4---5分钟搞定。然后一定集中精力做仔细阅读部分,然后是综合部分。仔细阅读部分,尤其是2篇传统阅读题型这是重中之重,考试建议的时间是20分钟左右,但是我想大家尽量的多花一点时间,一定保证正确率。

  三、最后20天的备考方案

  1、材料:6套真题+2套模拟+作文复习(2篇写作+6—8篇的范文背诵)(模拟题做题的时间一定要选择在每周六下午,与考试时间相仿,进行临考模拟,强调一点,作文一定也要写,这样可以使你对考试的时间流程更加了解和适应,但是最后的分数不要在乎,模拟题的作用就是练习速度的,因为其题目的质量、信度和效度都与真题不具有可比性)。

  2、复习进度:2---3天复习一套真题,如果真题还没有成套做的,就按考试时间做一下,如果做过了就进行研究真题,从前往后研究,保证在考前的几天接触到08年6月和08年1月的最新2套真题

  3、复习重点:传统阅读+作文+听力

  第一部分:传统阅读的复习

  步骤:(两个层面:从题目层面和文章本身)

  1、首先把阅读理解按照规定时间做一遍,一般是8---10分钟一篇。关于做题顺序,每个人的习惯不同,我建议是先看一下题干,然后回到原文中进行查找,定位与替换;(因为六级考试中,细节题居多,关键定位词比较明显)

  2、核对答案;

  3、对5道题目进行超精分析,从正确选项的获得到干扰项的设计都要做到了如指掌,这样可以提高你的抗干扰能力。对于正确选项的分析,应该是定位与替换,把答案中与原文的替换词和同义转述的句子仔细体会,并做好笔记,烂熟于心;而对于其他3个干扰项,一定要找出命题人是通过什么手段进行干扰的,比如说是与原文偷换概念、扩大范围、缩小范围、绝对化等等干扰项设计方式。这一点至关重要。对干扰项的分析和对正确选项的同义替换分析决定了你的六级考试阅读理解的得分,因为定位与替换是阅读理解的精髓所在。

  4、对文章本身的超精分析:

  阅读理解的文章的选择都是经过命题专家精选的,具有较强的可读性、示范性,因此我们除了题目分析之外,还必须对文章本身进行分析,从宏观和微观层面熟悉和掌握英美文章的行文特点、常用词汇、文章题材以及感情色彩的表达,虽然我们下一次以及以后的六级考试不可能碰到原文,但是英美人写作的特点、习惯和题材都差不多,可以起到触类旁通、举一反三的效果,因此对文章的分析绝对不能忽视。

  几点建议:

  1)文章中不能出现一个不认识的词汇、短语和句型(专业词汇除外),在这个过程中也是对单词的复习,因为以前我发现很多考生在考前死背词汇书,和念经一样,但是我们要清楚,词汇是活的,六级考试词汇的考查点是词汇的运用,并不是你的背诵,因此只有在阅读中的词汇才是活的,才有其具体语境中的用法,重点掌握词汇的搭配、熟词生意、由词汇所构成的句型,词汇的形象用法等,我的一个理念的就是六级复习不分家,也就是说你一定要积极复习,当你精读阅读文章的时候,如果你碰到一个词汇的搭配,句型,你就要主动的去运用它,利用它造个句子,这才说明了你掌握了。这就等于你在复习阅读的时候,词汇、作文一起复习了,能起到一石二鸟,甚至一石三鸟的功效。

  2)注意句与句之间、段与段之间的衔接关系,尤其是衔接词的运用,不要忽视小词对文章的作用和影响。这对理解文章、分清层次以及分清意群有很大的好处,最好能对文章的段落进行分层次,每层甚至每一段能用一句话表达出来,加强你对文章的深层次理解,这有助于对文章主题类的题目的解题。因为一篇文章只有一个主题,任何段落的阐述都是围绕这个主题来进行的,或者用正面论证、或者反面论证、或采用引证等等手段。除此之外,有些段落和篇章结构还可以用在你的写作中,我认为一篇真题中的阅读理解就是一篇写作范文,里面有很多的养分值得我们去吸收和运用。

  3、注意作者观点的表达方式以及作者观点与专家观点的区分。在一般的英美文章中,尤其是六级考试所选的文章中,作者的观点表达方式基本上都是比较直白的,隐藏在字面意思背后的并不是很多,通常通过形容词、副词、以及特定的观点词和特定句型来表达,这些词汇和句型必须通过已考试题来把握和总结,熟记,对作者态度题的解答有直接的帮助。

  4、注意对文章中的主题替换词进行归纳整理,丰富自己的词汇量。

  5、对文章中特殊标点符号的含义必须做到心知肚明,这也是重要的考点。

  第二部分:作文部分的复习

  1、特别提醒:

  1)注意字迹的清晰、一定用蓝黑钢笔或水笔,便于扫描,以免造成不必要的麻烦;

  2)一定树立反模板的意识,尽量不要使用模板作文;

  3)在一篇文章中尽量出现几个闪光点,包括词汇层面和句型层面的;用来吸引阅卷老师的眼球,同时这也是作文加分和得高分的保障,

  4)作文一定要段落清晰,一般情况下题目中给出几个要点就写几段,切勿写成一段。而每一段的第一句一定要有主题句,这就是对每个要点的具体展开。

  5)必须包含题目所给的所有要点。

  6)切勿在作文中出现低级的语法错误和拼写错误,这一点扣分非常严重。

  2、高分作文的标志:

  1)是否使用长短句交叉

  2)是否会使用插入语

  3)用词是否多样、准确、形象(闪光点)

  4)关键词是否换用、切勿老用重复词

  5)句型使用是否准确、地道

  3、具体复习方案:

  1)一定在最后20天左右的时间自己动手写2—3篇作文,让英语老师或高手进行修改,找出你存在的问题,提醒自己在考场上避免再犯同类的错误。

  2)仔细研读最近6套真题的经典范文,并从范文的结构、谋篇、词汇的运用、词汇多样性和表达多样性上吸取养分,丰富自己的表达;通过研读真题,还可以熟知命题的趋向和考查方式。

  3)适当的背8---10篇不同题材和类型的经典范文,起到预测的作用,并把以前你自己写的作文中的表达和复习过程中所积累的表达进行融合,形成自己的独家模板,以备考场上灵活运用。

  第三部分:听力部分的复习

  众所周知,相对于阅读和作文来说,听力在短时间内想大幅度提高是很困难的,听力靠的是细水长流,日积月累,在这里我就不过多说明和阐述了。简而言之,在最后的冲刺复习中,听力部分的复习应该做到的就是每天坚持听半个小时到45钟左右的真题,进行精听,并进行听写,仔细研读听力原文,掌握听力原文中的单词、短语和句型,保持一种听力的状态就可以了,不要抱有提高太多分数的幻想,这是不现实的。对于六级考试来说,听力中很多侧重于考查弦外之音题和言外之意题,这一点应该引起重视。
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