The productivity of Americans employed in private businesses has declined. The productivity of workers in countries such as Japan and Germany is increasing. American machine tools, on average, are old, relatively inefficient, and rapidly becoming obsolete, whereas those of our competitors overseas, in comparison, are newer and more efficient. We are no longer the most productive workers in the world. We are no longer the leaders in industrial innovation (革新). We are an immensely

  wealthy nation of educated men and women who seem to have lost sight of the fact that everything—from the simplest necessities to the finest luxuries—must be produced through our own collective hard work. We have come to expect automatic increases in our collective standard of living, but we seem to have forgotten that these increases are possible only when our productivity continues to grow.

  One thing that must change is the rate at which we substitute capital equipment for human labor. Simply put, our labor force has increased at a far greater rate than has our stock of capital investment. We seem to have forgotten that our past productivity gains, to a large extent, were realized from substitutions of capital for human labor. Today, 3 times as many robots are listed as capital assets by Japanese firms as by United States firms.

  There is no doubt that robots will become a common sight in American factories. Representing a new generation of technology, robots will replace factory labor much as the farm tractor replaced the horse. Robot technology has much to offer. It offers higher levels of productivity and quality at lower costs; in promises to free men and women from the dull, repetitious toil of the factory, it is likely to have an impact on society comparable to that made by the growth of computer technology.

  1. The word "obsolete"(Para. 1) most probably means_______.
  A. weak B. old
  C. new D. out of date
  2. The author is anxious about_______.
  A. his people no longer taking the lead in industrial innovation
  B. his country no longer being a wealthy nation
  C. his people forgetting to raise their productivity
  D. his country falling behind other industrial nations
  3. According to the author, in his country_______..
  A. the proportion of labor force to capital investment is quite low
  B. the growth rate of labor force should be greater than that of capital investment
  C. the productivity increases should be achieved by the increases of labor force
  D. capital investment should have increased more rapidly than labor force
  4. So far as the influence on society is concerned, _______.
  A. robot technology seems to be much more promising than computer technology
  B. computer technology has less to offer than robot technology
  C. robot technology can be compared with computer technology
  D. robot technology cannot be compared with computer technology
  5. The purpose of the author in writing this passage is to show that_______.
  A. robots will help increase labor productivity
  B. robots will rule American factories
  C. robots are cheaper than human laborers
  D. robots will finally replace humans in factories

  Sugar is so much a part of our modern life that we only really think about it when, for some ___1___ , we cannot obtain it. It has been known to man for at least 3,000 years, but has ___2___ into common use only in ___3___times. Until quite recently it was considered as a medicine and as a luxury for the very rich only.

  Sugar is, then, ___4 ___to our civilization. But what___5___ is it? Of course, most of us recognize sugar immediately as the sweet material which we put in coffee or cakes. This common form of sugar is derived from two plants: the sugar cane (a type of grass which grows to a height of twenty feet) and the sugar beet (which grows under ground). But there are in fact many types of sugar, and the chemist recognizes hundreds of different ___6___ , each coming from a different source.

  About 90% of the sugar is produced as food. Only 10% is used in industry for ___7___other than food production. Yet sugar has great possibilities for use as the basis of chemicals. It can even be used for making plastics. In the future these potential uses will certainly be developed more than in the past.

  There are many reasons why we should ___8___the production of sugar. Most important is that it is one of the most highly concentrated of energy foods.

  Thus sugar cane and beet produce an average of 7,000,000 calories per acre. In this way they have the advantage over potatoes which give only 4, 000, 000, while the___9___ for wheat and beans is 2 ,000,000 each. So three acres of land growing wheat, beans and potatoes give only ___10__more energy than one acre of sugar.

  A. slightly B. intention C. reason D. modern
  E. strongly F. figure G. come H. significant
  I. exactly J. increase K. proposals L. turn
  M. purposes N. varieties O. serious

  Colleges and Universities

  More than 60 percent of all high school graduates continue their formal education after graduation. Many attend colleges that offer four-year programs leading to a bachelor's degree. College students are called undergraduates, and their four years of study are divided into the freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. In most colleges the first two years are designed to provide a broad general education, and during this time the college student is usually required to take courses in general areas of study, such as English, science, foreign languages, and social science. By the junior year the student begins to major in one particular field of study, or discipline.
  Some institutions of higher learning offer only the four-year college program. A university offers graduate or post-college programs, as well. Graduate degrees in fields such as English literature, chemistry, and history are granted by graduate schools of arts and sciences. These schools may offer one- or two-year programs leading to a master's degree (M. A. ), and programs lasting three years or more that lead to the degree of doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D. ). A candidate for a Ph. D. must meet certain course requirements in his field, pass written and oral examinations, and present a written thesis based on original research. Some universities offer postdoctoral programs that extend study and research beyond the Ph. D.
  Many universities also have what are called professional schools for study in such fields as law, medicine, engineering, architecture, social work, business, library science, and education. Professional schools differ widely in their requirements for admission and the lengths of their programs. Medical students, for example, must complete at least three years of premedical studies at an undergraduate school before they can enter the three- or four-year program at a medical school. Engineering and architecture students, on the other hand, can enter a four- or five-year professional school immediately upon completion of secondary school.
  The various disciplines, or fields of study, are organized by department. These departments are staffed by faculty members ranging from full professors to
  instructors. A full professor has tenure, which is permanent appointment with guaranteed employment at the institution until his retirement. Ranking below the full professors are the associate professors, who may or may not have tenure, depending on the policy of the particular college or university. Next are the assistant professors, who do not have tenure. At the bottom of this academic ladder are the instructors. They are usually young teachers who have just received their doctorates or will receive them shortly. Sometimes graduate students are employed as part-time teaching assistants while they are completing their graduate work.
  Today almost 5 million men and more than 3 million women attend more than 2500 colleges and universities. Approximately 85 percent of these schools are coeducational, which means that both men and women are enrolled in the same institutions. Colleges range in size from a few hundred students to many thousands. Several universities have more than 20, 000 undergraduate and graduate students on one campus. A number of large state institutions maintain branches on several different campuses throughout the state. Classes vary from seminars, or small discussion groups, of fewer than twenty to large lecture courses for hundreds of students.
  Approximately one-fourth of all college and university students attend private institutions. The rest study at state or municipal, publicly financed colleges and universities. Every state has at least one public university, and in addition there are several hundred state and locally supported colleges. The academic programs of these private and public institutions are very similar. Indeed, there are only a few important differences between public and private colleges. Private colleges are privately organized and privately run; public institutions are operated under the control of state or local officials. The other differences involve admissions policies and the methods by which public and private institutions are financed.
  Admission to a state university is usually open to all men and women who have graduated from high schools of the state and who have satisfactory high school records. Many state universities require students to earn high scores on achievement and aptitude examinations, but the underlying philosophy is that all students who want an education and are qualified should have the opportunity to continue their education at public institutions. Tuition rates are low, compared to private-college costs, and scholarship aid and loans are frequently available. A few nonresidents are admitted to state schools, but they must pay much higher tuition fees than residents of the state.
  Admission to some private colleges is more selective and rigid than admission to some public institutions, and frequently the student body is smaller. High school applicants to some private colleges must submit detailed application forms, and they must take scholastic aptitude and achievement examinations. College admissions committees decide which students to accept, basing their judgment on these applications, the results of the examinations, high school records, and other factors such as personal interviews with the applicants and letters of recommendation from high school teachers. For certain colleges, such as Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Stanford, and Columbia, applications usually far exceed the number of students who are accepted. In 1975 , for example, Harvard received 7620 applications for 1500 available places.
  The average private college tuition in the early 1970s was $ 2161 a year. This figure was approximately four times greater than the average public-college tuition. At Harvard, tuition cost $3200 in 1973-1974. The University of Massachusetts, a publicly supported institution in the same state, charged $ 300 for a state resident. These tuition figures do not include the costs of room, food, and other everyday living expenses. Some students receive scholarship assistance and loans to help pay for the cost of their education. Many students at private and public colleges work while they are attending school, in order to pay their expenses.
  Almost 1500 American colleges and universities are privately organized and financed. More than half the income of these institutions comes from student tuition payments. The rest comes from private gifts, endowment earnings, and some federal research grants, Because of steadily rising costs, many private institutions have had to raise tuition rates, reduce scholarship aid, and limit some academic programs. The poor financial condition of most private institutions is a very serious problem in the world of higher education today.
  Student fees account for only 15 percent of the income of public colleges and universities. The rest comes from municipal or state and some federal government sources. Although public institutions have also experienced the problem of rising costs, they have often been able to depend on state legislators for financial support. In large part this support may be explained by the legislators' response *o the wishes of the people who elected them and to general acceptance of the American tradition that everyone who is qualified should have the opportunity to continue his climb up the educational ladder at publicly financed institutions.

  1. It can be inferred from the passage that all high school graduates who want an education and are qualified will have the opportunity for further education in either public or private universities.

  2. According to the passage, about three fourths of college and university students are studying in the public institutions.

  3. Private institutions. enjoy higher reputation of good teaching quality, although they have similar academic programs with public institutions.

  4. Students can study for a master's degree or the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in any institutions as long as they can meet all the requirements.

  5. The assistant professors are right next to the full professors in the academic ladder.

  6. The average tuition of private colleges was about four times more than that of public colleges in the early 1970s, which accounted for half of the total income.

  7. The majority of the students who graduate from high schools go on with their education in the institutions of higher learning.

  8. A college senior is supposed to focus his study on______.

  9. That the operation of the colleges and universities rests with state or local government is the characteristic of______.

  10. The admissions committees of private colleges are responsible for______.

  Pronouncing a language is a skill. Every normal person is expert in the skill of pronouncing his own language; but few people are even moderately proficient at pronouncing foreign languages. Now there are many reasons for this, some obvious, some perhaps not so obvious. But I suggest that the fundamental reason why people in general do not speak foreign languages very much better than they do is that they fail to grasp the true nature of the problem of learning to pronounce, and consequently never set about tackling it in the right way. Far too many people fail to realize that pronouncing a foreign language is a skill—one that needs careful training of a special kind, and one that cannot be acquired by just leaving it to take care of itself. I think even teachers of language, while recognizing the importance of a good accent, tend to neglect, in their practical teaching, the branch of study concerned with speaking the language. So the first point I want to make is that English pronunciation must be taught; the teacher should be prepared to devote some of the lesson time to this, and should get the student to feel that here is a matter worthy of receiving his close attention. So, there should be occasions when other aspects of English, such as grammar or spelling, are allowed for the moment to take second place.
  Apart from this question of the time given to pronunciation, there are two other requirements for the teacher: the first, knowledge; the second, technique.
  It is important that the teacher should be in possession of the necessary information. This can generally be obtained from books. It is possible to get from books some idea of the mechanics of speech, and of what we call general phonetic theory. It is also possible in this way to get a clear mental picture of the relationship between the sounds of different languages, between the speech habits of English people and those, say, of your students. Unless the teacher has such a picture, any comments he may make on his students' pronunciation are unlikely to be of much use, and lesson time spent on pronunciation may well be time wasted.

  26. What does the writer actually say about pronouncing foreign languages?
  A. Only a few people are really proficient.
  B. No one is really an expert in the skill.
  C. There aren't many people who are even fairly good.
  D. There are even some people who are moderately proficient.

  27. The writer argues that going about the problem of pronunciation in the wrong way is
  A. an obvious cause of not grasping the problem correctly
  B. a fundamental consequence of not speaking well
  C. a consequence of not grasping the problem correctly
  D. not an obvious cause of speaking poorly

  28. The best way of learning to speak a foreign language, he suggests, is by_______.
  A. picking it up naturally as a child
  B. learning from a native speaker
  C. not concentrating on pronunciation as such
  D. undertaking systematic work

  29. The value the student puts on correct speech habits depends upon_______.
  A. how closely he attends to the matter
  B. whether it is English that is being taught
  C. his teacher's approach to pronunciation
  D. the importance normally given to grammar and spelling

  30. How might the teacher find himself wasting lesson time?
  A. By spending lesson time on pronunciation.
  B. By making ill-informed comments upon pronunciation.
  C. By not using books on phonetics in the classroom.
  D. By not giving students a clear mental picture of the difference between sounds.

  An industrial society, especially one as centralized and concentrated as that of Britain, is heavily dependant on certain essential services: for instance, electricity supply, water, rail and road transport, the harbors. The area of dependency has widened to include removing rubbish, hospital and ambulance services, and, as the economy develops, central computer and information services as well. If any of these services ceases to operate, the whole economic system is in danger.
  It is this interdependency of the economic system that makes the power of trade unions such an important issue. Single trade unions have the ability to cut off many economic blood supplies. This can happen more easily in Britain than in some other countries, in part because the labor force is highly organized. About 55 per cent of British workers belong to unions, compared to under a quarter in the United States. For historical reasons, Britain's unions have tended to develop along trade and occupational lines, rather than on an industry-by-industry basis, which makes wage policy, democracy in industry and the improvement of procedures for fixing wage levels difficult to achieve.
  There are considerable strains and tensions in the trade union movement, some of them arising from their outdated and inefficient structure. Some unions have lost many members because of industrial changes. Others are involved in arguments about who should represent workers in new trades. Unions for skilled trades are separate from general unions, which means that different levels of wages for certain jobs are often a source of bad feeling between unions. In traditional trades which are being pushed out of existence by advancing technologies, unions can fight for their members' disappearing jobs to the point where the jobs of other union's members are threatened or destroyed. The printing of newspapers both in the United States and in Britain has frequently been halted by the efforts of printers to hold on to their traditional highly-paid jobs.
  1. Why is the question of trade union power important in Britain?

  A. The economy is very much interdependent.
  B. Unions have been established a long time.
  C. There are more unions in Britain than elsewhere.
  D. There are many essential services.

  2. Because of their out-of-date organization some unions find it difficult to______.
  A. change as industries change B. get new members to join them
  C. learn new technologies D. bargain for high enough wages

  3. Disagreements arise between unions because some of them
  A. try to win over members of other unions
  B. ignore agreements
  C. protect their own members at the expense of others
  D. take over other union's jobs

  4. It is difficult to improve the procedures for fixing wage levels because______.
  A. some industries have no unions
  B. unions are not organized according to industries
  C. only 55 per cent of workers belong to unions
  D. some unions are too powerful

  5. Which of the following is NOT TRUE?
  A. There are strains and tensions in the trade union movement.
  B. Some unions have lost many members.
  C. Some unions exist in the outdated structure.
  D. A higher percentage of American workers belong to unions than that of British workers.

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