61. Of course, it would be as dangerous to overreact to history by concluding that the majority must now be wrong about expansion as it would be to re-enact the response that greeted the suggestion that the continents had drifted.
  62. While the fact of this consumer revolution is hardly in doubt, three key questions remain: who were the consumers? What were their motives? And what were the effect of the new demand for luxuries?
  63. Although it has been possible to infer from the goods and services actually produced what manufacturers and servicing trades thought their customers wanted, only a study of relevant personal documents written by actual consumers will provide a precise picture of who wanted what.
  64. With respect to their reasons for immigrating, Grassy does not deny their frequently noted fact that some of the immigrants of the 1630’s, most notably the organizers and clergy, advanced religious explanations for departure, but he finds that such explanations usually assumed primacy only in retrospect.
  65. If we take the age-and sex-specific unemployment rates that existed in 1956 (when the overall unemployment rate was 4.1 percent) and weight them by the age- and sex-specific shares of the labor force that prevail currently, the overall unemployment rate becomes 5 percent.
  66. He was puzzled that I did not want what was obviously a “ step up” toward what all Americans are taught to want when they grow up: money and power.
  67. Unless productivity growth is unexpectedly large, however, the expansion of real output must eventually begin to slow down to the economy’s larger run growth potential if generalized demand pressures on prices are to be avoided.
  68. However, when investment flows primarily in one direction, as it generally does from industrial to developing countries, the seemingly reciprocal source-based restrictions produce revenue sacrifices primarily by the state receiving most of the foreign investment and producing most of the income—namely ,the developing country partner.
  69. The pursuit of private interests with as little interference as possible from government was seen as the road to human happiness and progress rather than the public obligation and involvement in the collective community that emphasized by the Greeks.
  70. The defense lawyer relied on long-standing principles governing the conduct of prosecuting attorneys: as quasi-judicial officers of the court they are under a duty not to prejudice a party’s case through overzealous prosecution or to detract from the impartiality of courtroom atmosphere.
  71. No prudent person dared to act on the assumption that, when the continent was settled, one government could include the whole; and when the vast expense broke up, as seemed inevitable, into a collection of separate nations, only discord, antagonism, and wars could be expected.
  72. If they were right in thinking that the next necessity in human progress was to lift the average person upon an intellectual and social level with the most favored, they stood at least three generations nearer than Europe to that goal.
  73. Somehow he knows that if our huckstering civilization did not at every moment violate the eternal fitness of things, the poet’s song would have been given to the world, and the poet would have been cared for by the whole human brotherhood, as any man should be who does the duty that every man owes it.
  74. The instinctive sense of the dishonor which money-purchase does to art is so strong that sometimes a man of letters who can pay his way otherwise refuses pay for his work, as Lord Byron did, for a while, from a noble pride, and as Count Tolstoy has tried to do, from a noble conscience.
  75. Perhaps he believed that he could not criticize American foreign policy without endangering the support for civil rights that he had won from the federal government.
  76. Abraham Lincoln, who presided in his stone temple on August 28, 1963 above the children of the slaves he emancipated (解放), may have used just the right words to sum up the general reaction to the Negroes’ massive march on Washington.
  77. In the Warren Court era, voters asked the Court to pass on issues concerning the size and shape of electoral districts, partly out of desperation because no other branch of government offered relief, and partly out of hope that the Court would reexamine old decisions in this area as it had in others, looking at basic constitutional principles in the light of modern living conditions.
  78. Some even argue plausibly that this weakness may be irremediable : in any society that, like a capitalist society, seeks to become ever wealthier in material terms disproportionate rewards are bound to flow to the people who are instrumental in producing the increase in its wealth.
  79. This doctrine has broadened the application of the Fourteenth Amendment to other, nonracial forms of discrimination, for while some justices have refused to find any legislative classification other than race to be constitutionally disfavored, most have been receptive to arguments that at least some nonracial discriminations, sexual discrimination in particular, are “suspect” and deserve this heightened scrutiny by the courts.
  80. But as cameras become more sophisticated, more automated, some photographers are tempted to disarm themselves or to suggest that they are not really armed, preferring to submit themselves to the limits imposed by premodern camera technology because a cruder, less high-powered machine is thought to give more interesting or emotive results, to have more room for creative accident.
  第四部分(61-80句译文)
  61、当然,对历史反应过度以致结论说关于扩张的问题大多数人都错了与重新形成对大陆漂浮建议理论的反应一样,是危险的。将来对于这些关键问题的研究毫无疑问是必要的,然而不应该否定最近研究结论的说服力,在18世纪的英格兰对于一些微不足道和有使用价值的商品和服务的需求,预示了我们今天的世界。
  62、然而这种消费革命的情况还有疑问,三个关键的问题是:消费者是什么人?他们的动机是什么?对于奢侈品的新型需求的效果是什么?
  63、尽管从生产厂商和服务行业认为他们的顾客需要并实际生产的产品或者提供的服务来推断他是可能的。但只有对实际的消费者填写的个人资料的研究才能清楚地描述顾客的需求。
  64、对于他们移民原因的细节,Grassy并不否认他们经常提出的事实-17世纪30年代的一些移民主要由组织家和牧师组成,提出了要离开的宗教解释,但他发现只是以回顾的方式推定的基本情况。
  65、如果我们将1956年(当时的平均失业率为4、1%)的年龄和性别失业率分来用今天一般的劳动力中年龄性别比来计算的话,平均失业率就是5%了。
  66、他很迷惑我并不想要明显的是所有美国人被教导长大后要追求的东西:金钱和权力。
  67、除非生产力的增长出人意料的大,不然实际产出的扩大最终要开始减缓以适应经济的可持续发展,这样才能避免价格的综合需求压力。
  68、然而,当投资基本上流向一个方面时,就像一般从工业化到一般发展中国家一样,看起来是基于双方资源的规定产生的收入损失主要由接收大量外国投资和创造大部分收益的国家来承担-即发展中国家一方。
  69、尽可能没有政府干预地追求个人利益被看作为通往人类幸福的道路和进步,而不是像希腊人强调的集体社会中的公共义务与参与。
  70、辩护律师依靠长期作用的准则来约束原告律师的行来:作为法庭的准司法人员,他们有责任不能过分起诉来偏见性对待一方的案子或者破坏法庭的公正气氛。
  71、没有一个谨慎的人能按如下的假设行事:当陆地确定以后,一个政府并不能包括全部;当这种巨大的开销终于分裂为几个民族时,这看起来是不可避免的,人们就只能等待着争论,敌对和战争了。
  72、如果他们认为人类进步的下一步必需是把普通人的智力水平和社会地位向着最受欢迎的方向提高的看法正确的话,他们至少要比欧洲超前三代接近那个目标。
  73、他认识到如果不是我们的“小贬”文明每时每刻地破坏事实内部的和谐的话,诗人的诗歌就该已经奉献给了世界,而诗人也该被全人类关怀着,每个为大家做事的人都该被如此对待。
  74、金钱购买给艺术的本能耻辱感如此强烈,以致可有时文人可以获得报酬却拒绝为其作品给予的报酬,Lord Byron有时因为尊贵的自豪而这么做,而Count Tolstoy则出于贵族的良知而尽力这么做。
  75、也许他认为他批评美国的外支政策就会使他从联帮政府那里获得的对人权和的支持受到威胁。
  76、 Abraham Lincoln在1963年8月28日在他掌管的石头寺里解放了奴隶的孩子们,使用了正确的词语来总统对待华盛顿的黑人群众游行。
  77、在Warren法庭时代,选民们要求法庭通过有关选区的大小和形状的问题,一方面因为出于绝望-没有什么其他的政府部门提供缓解的办法;一方面出于希望-法庭根据现代的生活条件来审视基本的宪法原则,像其他地区一样重新审查在这一地区的旧的规定。
  78、有些人甚至看似事理地认为这一弱点无可补救:在任何一个在物质财富方面追求更加富裕的社会中,比如说资本主义社会,比例不均衡的回报肯定要流向那些在创造财富增长的过程中提供设备的人。
  79、这一学说把十四修正案的应用扩大到了其他方面,由于一些法官拒绝用宪法来给除种族外的东西来进行法定分类予以否定,许多人觉得这一论点可以接受;至少有一些非种族的歧视,特别是性别歧视被怀疑要受法庭的仔细审查。
  80、但由于照相机变得越来越精细,越来越自动化了,一些摄影师禁不住开始解除他们的装备或者说他们根本没什么装备,而倾向于运用那些非现代的照相技术,因为一架未成熟,力不大的机器被认为更加有趣或者说更能有情绪结果,给人更多的创作空间。
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