Part Ⅳ  Reading Comprehension (Reading in Depth)                   (25 minutes)

Section A
Directions:In this section,there is a short passage with 5 questions or incomplete statements. Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words on Answer Sheet 2.  
Questions 47 to 51 are based on the following passage.      
Culture shock is an occupational disease for people who have been suddenly transplanted abroad. Like most illness, it has its own symptoms and a cure.
Culture shock is accelerated by the anxiety that results from losing all familiar signs and symbols of social intercourse. Those signs include the thousand and one ways in which we orient ourselves to the situation of daily life: when to shake hands and what to say when we meet people, when and how to give tips, how to make purchases, when to accept and refuse invitations, when to take statements seriously and when not. These signs, which may be words, gestures, facial expressions, or customs, are acquired by all of us in the course of growing up and as much a part of our culture as the language we speak or the beliefs we accept. All of us depend for our peace of mind and our efficiency on hundreds of these cues, most of which we do not carry on the level of conscious awareness.
Now when an individual enters a strange culture, all or most of these familiar signs are removed. He or she is like a fish out of water. No matter how broad-minded or full of goodwill you may be, a series of supports have been knocked from under you, followed by a feeling of frustration and anxiety. People react to the frustration in much the same way. First they reject the environment which causes discomfort: "The ways of the host country are bad because they make us feel bad." For example, Americans who are in a strange land get together to grouse about the host country and its people, you can be sure they are suffering from culture shock. Another phase of culture shock is regression. The home environment suddenly assumes a tremendous importance. To a foreigner, everything becomes irrationally glorified. All the difficulties and problems are forgotten and only the good things back home are remembered. It usually takes a trip home to bring one back to reality.

47. What kind of people may suffer from culture shock?                                                                      
48. According to the passage, the signs and cues which we are familiar with help us _________.
49. Most of the cues which we depend on for our peace of mind and our efficiency are obtained ___________.
50. According to the author, how would people who are suffering from culture shock  feel?                                                                        
51. Apart from rejecting the new environment, people who are suffering from culture shock may overestimate _________.

Section B
Directions:There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the center
Passage One
Questions 52 to 56 are based on the following passage.

The British psychoanalyst John Bowlby maintains that separation from the parents during the sensitive "attachment" period from birth to three may scar a child's personality and predispose to emotional problems in later life. Some people have drawn the conclusion from Bowlby's work that children should not be subjected to day care before the age of three because of the parental separation it entails, and many people do believe this. But there are also arguments against such a strong conclusion.
Firstly, anthropologists point out that the insulated love affair between children and parents found in modern societies does not usually exist in traditional societies. For example, we saw earlier that among the Ngoni the father and mother of a child did not rear their infant alone--far from it. Secondly, common sense tells us that day care would not so widespread today if parents, care takers found children had problems with it. Statistical studies of this kind have not yet been carried out, and even if they were, the results would be certain to be complicated and controversial. Thirdly, in the last decade, there have been a number of careful American studies of children in day care, and they have uniformly reported that day care had a neutral or slightly positive effect on children's development. But tests that have had to be used to measure this development are not widely enough accepted to settle the issue.
But Bowlby's analysis raises the possibility that early day care has delayed effects. The possibility that such care might lead to, say, more mental illness or crime 15 or 20 years later can only be explored by the use of statistics. Whatever the long-term effects, parents sometimes find the immediate effects difficult to deal with. Children under three are likely to protest at leaving their parents and show unhappiness. At the age of three or three and a half almost all children find the transition to nursery easy, and this is undoubtedly, why more and more parents make use of child care at this time. The matter, then, is far from clear-cut, though experience and available evidence indicate that early care is reasonable for infants.

52. This passage mainly centers on ______.
A) infants under the age of three should not be sent to nursery schools
B) whether children under the age of three should go to nursery schools
C) there is not negative long-term effect on infants who are sent to school before they are three
D) there is some negative effect on children who are sent to school after the age of three
53. The phrase "predispose to" in the first of paragraph most probably means ____
A) relieve                             B) influence favourably
  C) dispose of                        D) tend to suffer
54. According to Bowlby's belief, it is quite possible that _____.
A) men's personalities will be changed to some extent through separation from their parents
B) early day care can delay the occurrence of mental illness in children
C) children will be exposed to potential negative effects from early day care later on
D) some long-term effects can hardly be predicted
55. Those who are against the conclusion drawn from Bowlby think that _____.
A) traditional societies separate the child from the parent at an early age
B ) day care does not necessarily have a negative effect on children
C) a child did not live together with parents among Ngoni
D) children do emotional problems when separated from parents
56. The writer concludes that ______.
A) it is difficult to make clear what is the right age for nursery school
B) it is not settled now whether early care is reasonable for children
C) it is not beneficial for children to be sent to nursery school
D) it is reasonable to subject a child above three to nursery school
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