The economy of the United States after 1952 was the economy of a well-fed, almost fully employed people. Despite__1__alarms, the country escaped any postwar depression and lived in a__2__of boom. An economic survey of the year 1955, a typical year of the 1950's, may be typical as__3__the rapid economic growth of the decade. The national output was__4__at 10 percent above that of 1954(1955 output was estimated at 392 billion dollars). The production of manufactures was about 40 percent more than it had__5__ in the years immediately following World War I . The country's business spent about 30 billion dollars for new factories and machinery. National income __6__ for spending was almost a third greater than it had been in 1950. Consumers spent about 256 billion dollars; that is about 700 million dollars a day, or about twenty-five million dollars every hour, all round the __7__ . Sixty-five million people held jobs and only a little more than two million wanted jobs but could not find them. Only agriculture__8__that it was not sharing in the boom. To some observers this was a sad reflection of the mid-1920's. As farmers' share of their products__9 __ , marketing costs rose. But there were, among the observers of the national economy, a few who were not as confident as the majority. Those few seemed to fear that the boom could not last long and would__10__lead to the opposite—depression.

  A. eventually B. averaged C. gradually D. state
  E. valued F. form G. declined H. occasional
  I. casual J. argued K. descended L. complained
  M. clock N. available O. illustrating
  In the last two hundred years there have been great changes in the method of production of goods. This is now also true of the building industry; for mechanization has been introduced. System building can save both time and money. The principle of system building is that the building is made from a set of standard units. These are either made at the building-site or at a factory. Some designers, in fact, are standardizing the dimensions of rooms. They are made in multiples of a single fixed length, usually ten centimeters. This is called a modular (标准件的) system, and it means that manufactures can produce standardized fittings at a lower cost. The most important fact about system building is its speed. A ten-storey flat, for example, can be completed in four months.

  There are several new methods of system building. One is the panel method. In this case, the construction company sometimes erects a factory on the site. The walls and floors of the building, called panels, are cast in a horizontal or vertical position. Conduits for electrical wires and sleeves for pipes are cast in the panels when they are being made. The moulds for making these castings are situated all around the building.

  After the concrete panels are cast, they are allowed to set and harden for a week. Next they are lifted by a tower crane on to any section of the building. There the panels are cemented together at their joints and the floor covering is laid.

  After the panels have been cemented together, the crane lifts a case into the area. It contains all the fittings to be installed, such as wash-basins, radiators and pipes. Finishing tradesmen, such as plumbers, plasterers, painters and electricians, follow behind to complete the work.

  In some building developments, in some countries, whole flats with internal features like their bathrooms, bedrooms and connecting stairs, and weighing as much as twenty tons, are carried to the building-site ready-made. A giant overhead crane is used to lift them into position. In the future, this method may become more widespread.

  1. The main difference between panel method and the method discussed in the last paragraph is_______.
  A. the latter uses ready-made internal features
  B. panels are cast in a level position
  C. the former is used to build walls and floors while the latter to construct bathrooms or bedrooms
  D. the former is more expensive than the latter
  2. Which of these statements is TRUE of system building?
  A. It employs more men. B. It is difficult and dangerous.
  C. It can save both time and money. D. It means less mechanization.
  3. According to the passage, the principle of system building is that_______.
  A. construction methods are safer
  B. buildings are made from a set of standardized units
  C. similar buildings can be produced
  D. all units are produced on the site
  4. The usual fixed length in the modular system is_______.
  A. twenty centimeters B. ten millimeters
  C. fifty centimeters D. ten centimeters
  5. What lifts the concrete panels onto the building?
  A. Cranes. B. Man-power.
  C. Pulleys. D. Hydraulic jacks.
  According to the latest research in the' United States of America, men and women talk such different languages that it is like people from two different cultures trying to communicate. Professor Deborah Tannen of Georgetown University, has noticed the difference in the style of boy's and girl's conversations from an early age. She says that little girls' conversation is less definite than boys' and expresses more doubts. Little boys use conversation to establish status with their listeners.

  These differences continue into adult life, she says. In public conversations, men talk most and interrupt other speakers more. In private conversations, men and women speak in equal amounts—although they say things in a different style. Professor Tannen believes that, for woman, private talking is a way to establish and test intimacy. For men, private talking is a way to explore the power structure of a relationship.

  Teaching is one job where the differences between men's and women's ways of talking show. When a man teaches a woman, says Professor Tannen, he wants to show that he has more knowledge, and hence more power in conversation. When a woman teaches another woman, however, she is more likely to take a sharing approach and to encourage her student to join in.

  But Professor Tannen does not believe that women are naturally more helpful. She says women feel they achieve power by being able to help others. Although the research suggests men talk and interrupt people more than women, Professor Tannen says, women actually encourage this to happen because they believe it will lead to more intimacy and help to establish a relationship.

  Some scientists who are studying speech think that the brain is pre¬programmed for language. As we are usually taught to speak by women, it seems likely that the brain must have a sexual bias(倾向性) in its programming,

  otherwise male speech patterns would not arise at all.

  1. In the opinion of the writer, women encourage men to talk because
  A. it will lead to more intimacy and help to establish a relationship
  B. it will help to establish status with their listeners
  C. it will help to express more clearly
  D. it will help to communicate better
  2. There are_______in little girls' conversation than in boys'.
  A. fewer doubts B. more demands
  C. more doubts D. fewer uncertainties
  3. Some scientists believe that brain is pre-programmed for language. The word "pre programmed" means_______.
  A. programmed already B. programmed before one is born
  C. programmed early D. programmed by women
  4. In private conversation, women speak
  A. the same things as men B. less than men
  C. more than men D. as much as men
  5. The theme of this article is _______.
  A. women are naturally more helpful
  B. men and women talk different languages
  C. men talk most and interrupt other speakers more
  D. little girls' conversation is less definite
  Computer Use in School Education

  Accompanying the developments in computing as a subject for study there has been a corresponding growth in the use of the computer as an aid to teaching across the curriculum. The government offer of half-price computers led to the installation of a large number of school microcomputer systems at a time when there was very little educational software. At the same time there was an explosive demand for introductory courses, at first for secondary teachers and later, when the offer was extended to primary schools, for primary teachers. It would be impossible, and inappropriate, to make every teacher into a computer programming expert.

  What the teacher needs to know is how to connect up a system. And how to load and run programs. Once these skills have been acquired the much more important topic of the evaluation of. computer-based teaching materials can be addressed.
  The Unintelligent Machine
  Over the past 20 years the amount of computing power available for a given sum of money has approximately doubled every two years, and it looks as if this trend will continue in the foreseeable future. On the other hand, the fundamental logical design of computers is much the same as at the beginning of this period. The revolution has been one of scale and cost rather than a change in the kinds of things which computers can do. One might have expected therefore that by now we would know the best way in which computers can be used to help with the educational process.
  In the early sixties, programmed learning was looked on as the pathway to mechanize the learning process. But teaching machines of the time were inflexible and unresponsive. It was soon recognized that computers provide a much higher level of interaction with the student. Responses need not be restricted to multiple-choice button pushing, but can involve the recognition of words or numbers related to the context of the subject.
  In order to present information and questions to the student and to provide for appropriate branching, depending on the responses, some form of programming language is required. COURSEWRITER and later PILOT are " author languages" which allow someone without technical knowledge of computing to prepare programs of this kind. Text and graphics can be displayed, responses analyzed, and appropriate action taken.
  A tool such as this might seem to put considerable power in the hands of the teacher and yet such systems are hardly used at all in our schools. One reason is that the preparation of course material using an author language is, like that for videodisc systems, a very time-consuming business. A figure of 20 to 100 hours of preparation is quoted for each hour of student time at the computer. Such an investment is only worthwhile if the material can be used by a large number of students, and that assumes that the necessary resources in time and hardware are actually available.
  There is a more fundamental reason for lack of progress in computer-based tutorial systems and this relates to the fundamental lack of "intelligence" on the part of the computer. It is easy to generate drill and practice exercises which test a student's ability to produce response. It is quite another matter to provide useful advice if the response is wrong. The human teacher has a mental model of the student and can make a reasonable estimate of why a particular wrong answer has been produced. The longer the teacher has been in contact with that student the better he or she is able to offer constructive advice. The kind of system discussed above has no such model of the student on which to make decisions, nor does it have access to the large body of subject knowledge which is held by the human teacher. Its responses therefore must be stereotyped and unintelligent.
  Further evidence of the lack of machine intelligence is the failure to make computer " understand" natural language. We talk about " programming languages" for computers, but these are not languages in the ordinary sense. They are just systems of coding which provide a highly stylized way of writing down the solutions to particular sorts of problems. The tact that programs in these languages, although made up largely of English words and some well-known mathematical symbols, are unintelligible to the layC^f-ff W) reader indi¬cates the gulf which still exists between the kind of verbal instructions which can be given to another human, and the coded instructions required by the compu¬ter. One expert has argued that the construction of an intelligent machine is a logical impossibility. Many researchers in this area would dispute such a claim, but so far they cannot provide the essential demonstration to the contrary.
  The development of " expert systems", which can provide advice and information on the basis of human experience which is fed into them, is one step in the direction of machine intelligence. However, such systems are limited to knowledge in a tightly defined domain, and cannot operate outside this area. Nevertheless, there may well be something here for education. The Computer in the Classroom
  Where does this leave the computer as a tool for the teacher? Clearly teachers must exploit its strengths rather than complain about its weakness. However dull much drill and practice material may seem, children will often work at it for a considerable time without losing concentration. Rote learning (硬记硬背) is rightly out of favor in most educational contexts, but there are certain things which it is convenient to be able to recall instantly, and the computer can help us to remember them. The school pupil soon learns that the computer never gets tired, never loses its temper, will always respond almost instantaneously to any input, and does not display the pupil's ignorance to other people, and these factors help to provide a micro-environment within which the pupil is stable and secure.
  The introduction of computers into primary schools has concentrated the minds of educators on the use of the machine as an aid to the teacher, without the distraction of computer studies as a subject in its own right. The computer is very good at storing and rearranging information, and the introduction of simple database manipulation packages has allowed teachers to present pupils with the opportunity to collect information which is of interest to them, to structure it appropriately, and to store it on the computer. From the files thus produced various reports can be generated. These packages can be used in a variety of areas of study, from history to science, and an introduction to them is now an important part of teacher education in the use of computers. Computers can also simulate (|模拟) various dynamic situations, and a number of packages exploit this ability. Even the adventure games, which are sold for amusement to home computer users, can be turned to advantage if the problem-solving aspects are emphasized and the pupils' activity is appropriately structured.

  1. A computer has its limitations in the use as an aid to teaching.
  2. It is likely that computers will take the place of human teachers in the future.
  3. With the use of many computers in schools, the computer courses were in great demand.
  4. Computers are more reliable than human teachers in many respects.
  5. If focusing on problem-solving, pupils can get more amusement from the computer games.
  6. There is an argument over the possibility of making computers as intelligent as human teachers.
  7. The more fundamental factor that affects computer aided teaching is that it is time-consuming to prepare course materials.
  8. Coursewriter and Pilot are______.
  9. For constructive advice, students will have to rely on______.
  10. The advantage of computer's capability of storing information has been displayed by the use of______.
  Growth of trade will depend greatly on availability of energy sources. There may still be a trillion barrels of recoverable oil in the Middle East. But the oil crisis of 1974 has ____1____to renewed interest in coal and to a search for____2____ sources of energy. Solar, geothermal, and nuclear energy will play a large role in the years to come.

  Solar energy is available in ____3____ forms. Buildings can be heated and cooled by direct use of solar radiation, crops and trees, which are the most efficient converters of sunlight into energy, can be grown for their energy potential, wastes can be burned as ____4____, sunlight can be converted into DC (direct current) electricity, electric power can be____5____from the sun-warmed surface waters of the ocean, and lastly, solar radiation can be converted into heat that will drive electric power generators. Serious problems still remain as to ____6____and storage of solar energy.

  Geothermal energy is the energy contained within the earth. Heat is abundantly available deep in the earth's core and is constantly being produced. However, this heat is usually located at too deep a level for ____7____exploitation. In short, very little is known on the use of geothermal energy, and it has____8____been exploited.

  Nuclear energy is produced in nuclear power plants. At these plants atoms of uranium are split, thus ____9____masses of energy. Another source of energy under development is the nuclear fusion of certain atoms of hydrogen. This could eventually ____10____natural gas as a source of energy.
  A. rarely B. transformation C. fuel D. replace
  E. led F. alternative G. commercial H. briefly
  I. derived J. various K. relieving L. releasing
  M. transportation N. financial O. described
  I. E 2. F 3. J 4. C 5. I 6. M 7. G 8. A 9. L 10. D
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