Colleges and Universities

  More than 60 percent of all high school graduates continue their formal education after graduation. Many attend colleges that offer four-year programs leading to a bachelor's degree. College students are called undergraduates, and their four years of study are divided into the freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior years. In most colleges the first two years are designed to provide a broad general education, and during this time the college student is usually required to take courses in general areas of study, such as English, science, foreign languages, and social science. By the junior year the student begins to major in one particular field of study, or discipline.
  Some institutions of higher learning offer only the four-year college program. A university offers graduate or post-college programs, as well. Graduate degrees in fields such as English literature, chemistry, and history are granted by graduate schools of arts and sciences. These schools may offer one- or two-year programs leading to a master's degree (M. A. ), and programs lasting three years or more that lead to the degree of doctor of Philosophy (Ph. D. ). A candidate for a Ph. D. must meet certain course requirements in his field, pass written and oral examinations, and present a written thesis based on original research. Some universities offer postdoctoral programs that extend study and research beyond the Ph. D.
  Many universities also have what are called professional schools for study in such fields as law, medicine, engineering, architecture, social work, business, library science, and education. Professional schools differ widely in their requirements for admission and the lengths of their programs. Medical students, for example, must complete at least three years of premedical studies at an undergraduate school before they can enter the three- or four-year program at a medical school. Engineering and architecture students, on the other hand, can enter a four- or five-year professional school immediately upon completion of secondary school.
  The various disciplines, or fields of study, are organized by department. These departments are staffed by faculty members ranging from full professors to
  instructors. A full professor has tenure, which is permanent appointment with guaranteed employment at the institution until his retirement. Ranking below the full professors are the associate professors, who may or may not have tenure, depending on the policy of the particular college or university. Next are the assistant professors, who do not have tenure. At the bottom of this academic ladder are the instructors. They are usually young teachers who have just received their doctorates or will receive them shortly. Sometimes graduate students are employed as part-time teaching assistants while they are completing their graduate work.
  Today almost 5 million men and more than 3 million women attend more than 2500 colleges and universities. Approximately 85 percent of these schools are coeducational, which means that both men and women are enrolled in the same institutions. Colleges range in size from a few hundred students to many thousands. Several universities have more than 20, 000 undergraduate and graduate students on one campus. A number of large state institutions maintain branches on several different campuses throughout the state. Classes vary from seminars, or small discussion groups, of fewer than twenty to large lecture courses for hundreds of students.
  Approximately one-fourth of all college and university students attend private institutions. The rest study at state or municipal, publicly financed colleges and universities. Every state has at least one public university, and in addition there are several hundred state and locally supported colleges. The academic programs of these private and public institutions are very similar. Indeed, there are only a few important differences between public and private colleges. Private colleges are privately organized and privately run; public institutions are operated under the control of state or local officials. The other differences involve admissions policies and the methods by which public and private institutions are financed.
  Admission to a state university is usually open to all men and women who have graduated from high schools of the state and who have satisfactory high school records. Many state universities require students to earn high scores on achievement and aptitude examinations, but the underlying philosophy is that all students who want an education and are qualified should have the opportunity to continue their education at public institutions. Tuition rates are low, compared to private-college costs, and scholarship aid and loans are frequently available. A few nonresidents are admitted to state schools, but they must pay much higher tuition fees than residents of the state.
  Admission to some private colleges is more selective and rigid than admission to some public institutions, and frequently the student body is smaller. High school applicants to some private colleges must submit detailed application forms, and they must take scholastic aptitude and achievement examinations. College admissions committees decide which students to accept, basing their judgment on these applications, the results of the examinations, high school records, and other factors such as personal interviews with the applicants and letters of recommendation from high school teachers. For certain colleges, such as Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Stanford, and Columbia, applications usually far exceed the number of students who are accepted. In 1975 , for example, Harvard received 7620 applications for 1500 available places.
  The average private college tuition in the early 1970s was $ 2161 a year. This figure was approximately four times greater than the average public-college tuition. At Harvard, tuition cost $3200 in 1973-1974. The University of Massachusetts, a publicly supported institution in the same state, charged $ 300 for a state resident. These tuition figures do not include the costs of room, food, and other everyday living expenses. Some students receive scholarship assistance and loans to help pay for the cost of their education. Many students at private and public colleges work while they are attending school, in order to pay their expenses.
  Almost 1500 American colleges and universities are privately organized and financed. More than half the income of these institutions comes from student tuition payments. The rest comes from private gifts, endowment earnings, and some federal research grants, Because of steadily rising costs, many private institutions have had to raise tuition rates, reduce scholarship aid, and limit some academic programs. The poor financial condition of most private institutions is a very serious problem in the world of higher education today.
  Student fees account for only 15 percent of the income of public colleges and universities. The rest comes from municipal or state and some federal government sources. Although public institutions have also experienced the problem of rising costs, they have often been able to depend on state legislators for financial support. In large part this support may be explained by the legislators' response *o the wishes of the people who elected them and to general acceptance of the American tradition that everyone who is qualified should have the opportunity to continue his climb up the educational ladder at publicly financed institutions.

  1. It can be inferred from the passage that all high school graduates who want an education and are qualified will have the opportunity for further education in either public or private universities.

  2. According to the passage, about three fourths of college and university students are studying in the public institutions.

  3. Private institutions. enjoy higher reputation of good teaching quality, although they have similar academic programs with public institutions.

  4. Students can study for a master's degree or the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in any institutions as long as they can meet all the requirements.

  5. The assistant professors are right next to the full professors in the academic ladder.

  6. The average tuition of private colleges was about four times more than that of public colleges in the early 1970s, which accounted for half of the total income.

  7. The majority of the students who graduate from high schools go on with their education in the institutions of higher learning.

  8. A college senior is supposed to focus his study on______.

  9. That the operation of the colleges and universities rests with state or local government is the characteristic of______.

  10. The admissions committees of private colleges are responsible for______.

  Pronouncing a language is a skill. Every normal person is expert in the skill of pronouncing his own language; but few people are even moderately proficient at pronouncing foreign languages. Now there are many reasons for this, some obvious, some perhaps not so obvious. But I suggest that the fundamental reason why people in general do not speak foreign languages very much better than they do is that they fail to grasp the true nature of the problem of learning to pronounce, and consequently never set about tackling it in the right way. Far too many people fail to realize that pronouncing a foreign language is a skill—one that needs careful training of a special kind, and one that cannot be acquired by just leaving it to take care of itself. I think even teachers of language, while recognizing the importance of a good accent, tend to neglect, in their practical teaching, the branch of study concerned with speaking the language. So the first point I want to make is that English pronunciation must be taught; the teacher should be prepared to devote some of the lesson time to this, and should get the student to feel that here is a matter worthy of receiving his close attention. So, there should be occasions when other aspects of English, such as grammar or spelling, are allowed for the moment to take second place.
  Apart from this question of the time given to pronunciation, there are two other requirements for the teacher: the first, knowledge; the second, technique.
  It is important that the teacher should be in possession of the necessary information. This can generally be obtained from books. It is possible to get from books some idea of the mechanics of speech, and of what we call general phonetic theory. It is also possible in this way to get a clear mental picture of the relationship between the sounds of different languages, between the speech habits of English people and those, say, of your students. Unless the teacher has such a picture, any comments he may make on his students' pronunciation are unlikely to be of much use, and lesson time spent on pronunciation may well be time wasted.

  26. What does the writer actually say about pronouncing foreign languages?
  A. Only a few people are really proficient.
  B. No one is really an expert in the skill.
  C. There aren't many people who are even fairly good.
  D. There are even some people who are moderately proficient.

  27. The writer argues that going about the problem of pronunciation in the wrong way is
  A. an obvious cause of not grasping the problem correctly
  B. a fundamental consequence of not speaking well
  C. a consequence of not grasping the problem correctly
  D. not an obvious cause of speaking poorly

  28. The best way of learning to speak a foreign language, he suggests, is by_______.
  A. picking it up naturally as a child
  B. learning from a native speaker
  C. not concentrating on pronunciation as such
  D. undertaking systematic work

  29. The value the student puts on correct speech habits depends upon_______.
  A. how closely he attends to the matter
  B. whether it is English that is being taught
  C. his teacher's approach to pronunciation
  D. the importance normally given to grammar and spelling

  30. How might the teacher find himself wasting lesson time?
  A. By spending lesson time on pronunciation.
  B. By making ill-informed comments upon pronunciation.
  C. By not using books on phonetics in the classroom.
  D. By not giving students a clear mental picture of the difference between sounds.

  An industrial society, especially one as centralized and concentrated as that of Britain, is heavily dependant on certain essential services: for instance, electricity supply, water, rail and road transport, the harbors. The area of dependency has widened to include removing rubbish, hospital and ambulance services, and, as the economy develops, central computer and information services as well. If any of these services ceases to operate, the whole economic system is in danger.
  It is this interdependency of the economic system that makes the power of trade unions such an important issue. Single trade unions have the ability to cut off many economic blood supplies. This can happen more easily in Britain than in some other countries, in part because the labor force is highly organized. About 55 per cent of British workers belong to unions, compared to under a quarter in the United States. For historical reasons, Britain's unions have tended to develop along trade and occupational lines, rather than on an industry-by-industry basis, which makes wage policy, democracy in industry and the improvement of procedures for fixing wage levels difficult to achieve.
  There are considerable strains and tensions in the trade union movement, some of them arising from their outdated and inefficient structure. Some unions have lost many members because of industrial changes. Others are involved in arguments about who should represent workers in new trades. Unions for skilled trades are separate from general unions, which means that different levels of wages for certain jobs are often a source of bad feeling between unions. In traditional trades which are being pushed out of existence by advancing technologies, unions can fight for their members' disappearing jobs to the point where the jobs of other union's members are threatened or destroyed. The printing of newspapers both in the United States and in Britain has frequently been halted by the efforts of printers to hold on to their traditional highly-paid jobs.
  1. Why is the question of trade union power important in Britain?

  A. The economy is very much interdependent.
  B. Unions have been established a long time.
  C. There are more unions in Britain than elsewhere.
  D. There are many essential services.

  2. Because of their out-of-date organization some unions find it difficult to______.
  A. change as industries change B. get new members to join them
  C. learn new technologies D. bargain for high enough wages

  3. Disagreements arise between unions because some of them
  A. try to win over members of other unions
  B. ignore agreements
  C. protect their own members at the expense of others
  D. take over other union's jobs

  4. It is difficult to improve the procedures for fixing wage levels because______.
  A. some industries have no unions
  B. unions are not organized according to industries
  C. only 55 per cent of workers belong to unions
  D. some unions are too powerful

  5. Which of the following is NOT TRUE?
  A. There are strains and tensions in the trade union movement.
  B. Some unions have lost many members.
  C. Some unions exist in the outdated structure.
  D. A higher percentage of American workers belong to unions than that of British workers.

  I have never attended a large company's board meeting in my life, but I feel certain that the discussion often takes the following lines. The __1__ of producing a new—for example—toothpaste would make 8 Op the decent price for it, so we will market it at £l. 20. It is not a bad toothpaste (not specially good either, but not bad) , and as people like to try new things it will sell well to start with; but the __2__ of novelty soon fades, so sales will __3__ . When that starts to happen we will reduce the price to £l. 15. And we will turn it into a bargain by printing 5p OFF all over it, whereupon people will rush to buy it even though it still costs about forty-three percent more than its __4 __price.

  Sometimes it is not 5p OFF but lp OFF. What a shame to advertise lp OFF your soap or washing powder or dog food or whatever. Even the poorest old-age pensioner ought to regard this as an insult, but he doesn't. A bargain must not be __5__ To be offered a "gift" of one penny is like being invited to dinner and offered one single pea (tastily cooked), and nothing else. Even if it represented a __6__ reduction it would be an insult. Still, people say, one has to have washing powder (or whatever) and one might as well buy it a penny cheaper. When I was a boy in Hungary a man was __7__ of murdering some¬one for the sake of one pengo, the equivalent of a shilling, and pleaded__8__ The judge shouted __9__ : "To kill a man for a shilling! What can you say in your __10__ ?" The murderer replied: "A shilling here. . . a shilling there. . . " And that's what today's shopper says, too: "A penny here... a penny there. . . "
  A. missed B. defense C. real D. cost
  E. anxiously F. attraction G. fair H. expense
  I. fall J. angrily K. dismissed L. accused
  M. guilty N. faulty O. security

  Putting the Sun to Work

  It's a hot summer day, and you, your family, and friends decide to drive to the beach for a cookout.
  When you get to the beach, the sand and the rocks are so hot that they hurt your bare feet. You put on sneakers in a hurry. The water is so bright and shining in the sun that you can hardly look at it. While the charcoal (木炭) fire is starting to burn in the cookout stove, every one goes for a swim. The water feels good—warm at the top, but cooler down around your toes.
  A little wind is blowing when you come out. The fire isn't quite ready for cooking yet, so you play tag (儿童捉人游戏) or read.
  For lunch there are hot dog, corn, salad and rolls, sodas, fruit, and coffee for the adults. By the time the coffee water boils and the corn and hot dogs are cooked, all the bathing suits are dry. So are the towels spread out on the rocks, in the sun.
  Lunch is good. Just as you are finishing, it starts to rain so you pack up and run. But nobody minds the rain. It will cool things off.
  At the same time you were having fun at the beach, work was being done. Energy from the sun was doing work. Energy, in one form or another, does all the work in the world.
  Heat energy from the sun dried the towels. It heated the sand and the rocks, the water and the air. It even made the rain and the wind. Heat from the sun does small work and big work, all over the earth.
  Light energy from the sun was working on the beach too. It supplied the daylight.
  It lit the earth and made the sand bright and the water sparkling.
  The sun also supplied the energy that grew the food you ate.
  Plants use light energy from the sun to make food for themselves. The food is a kind of sugar. It is also a kind of energy called chemical energy. Green plants change light energy from the sun into chemical energy.
  Plants use some of that energy for everyday living and growing. They store the rest in their leaves and seeds, in fruit, roots, stems, and berries.
  The salad and the corn, the rolls, fruit, and coffee all came from plants. You and all animals depend on plants for food.
  The charcoal you used for cooking began as a plant too. Once, that charcoal was a living tree that used sunlight to make food and then stored part of the food it made. The energy in this stored food remained, even after the tree died. You used that energy when you burned the charcoal.
  The gasoline you used for driving to the beach began with energy from the sun, too. It was made from oil.
  Oil was formed from the remains of plants and animals that lived on earth millions of years ago. The remains of ancient living things are called fossils. This is why oil is called a fossil fuel. Coal and natural gas are fossil fuels, too.
  Now fossil fuels are beginning to be used up.
  That's why people worry about running out of energy.
  But as long as the sun shines, the earth will not run out of energy. The sun pours more energy on earth than we can ever use. Most of that energy comes to us as heat and light. Energy from the sun is called solar energy.
  Solar energy is a safe kind of energy. It doesn't make pollution or have dangerous leftovers. That is why scientists and inventors are experimenting with ways of harnessing the sun to do some of the jobs fossil fuels have been doing.
  But to make the sun do work like that, they have to solve some problems.
  They have to collect the sun's energy. Collecting sunshine isn't easy, unless you are a plant.
  Sunshine isn't easy to store, either. You can't fill a tank with it or put it in the wood box. You can't move it through a pipe or a wire. You can't turn it on.
  Still, people have been using solar energy to help do their work for a long time. There are old ways and new ways of catching sunshine and putting it to work.
  Suppose you were living in a cold place and going to spend the winter in a cave. Would you choose a cave that faced the winter sun or a cave that faced away from it?
  You might make the same choice if you were building a house in a cold place. You would probably build the house, so the winter sun would pour in the windows to warm it. People have been building houses that way for a long time.
  Is it possible to catch still more of the sun's heat in a house? Yes, Some houses also collect heat on the roof, move it indoors, store some, use some to make hot water and the rest for heating. A house like that is called a solar house.
  People who build solar houses have learned how to do those things by observing how the earth itself uses solar energy.
  Remember the beach?
  Remember the hot sand and the hot rocks?
  Some materials take in heat energy from the sun and hold it. They absorb the heat. Sand and rocks do this. So do some other solid materials, such as metals. Water absorbs the sun's heat too.
  Color can also be important. Dark, dull colors absorb heat. Light-colored, shiny surfaces reflect heat. They bounce it back. That's why dark clothes are warmer in the winter and light colored clothes are cooler in the summer.
  The longer it takes something to heat up, the longer that thing holds the heat. Materials that heat up fast cool off fast.
  If you go back to the beach in the evening after sunset, the sand and the rocks, which heated up fast, will be cool. But the water, which heated up slowly, will still be warm.
  It takes a long time for the sun to heat the water in a big lake or ocean. But by the end of summer, a large body of water will have caught and stored enough heat from the sun to last for a good part of the winter. Water stores heat very well.
  That's why land near a large body of water never gets quite as cold in the winter as land far away from the water. The stored heat in the water keeps the land around it warm.
  Slowly, all winter long, heat from the water moves out into the cold air. Heat always moves that way—from a warmer place or thing to a cooler one. Once you know which way heat moves, you understand how things get hot and how they lose heat.

  1. All the work in the world is done by energy coming from the sun in one form or another.
  2. As we humans depend on plants for food, plants live on chemical energy converted from light energy.
  3. Unless the sun dies, it will supply endless energy on earth.
  4. It has been a long time since people began to use solar energy because sunshine can be stored in houses.
  5. The advantage of the solar house is that it has hot water and heating.
  6. A solar house doesn't have to use electricity when it makes a good use of solar energy.
  7. The passage gives a brief account of how solar energy is employed.
  8. We can understand how things get hot or lose heat as long as we know______.
  9. Most of the energy the sun supplies to us is in the forms of______.
  10. People like to use fossil fuels to get almost all kinds of energy because they are______.
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