【题目内容】:


 

  要了解中国文化,就应该对中国的戏曲文化有所了解。中国地方戏种类很多,其中京剧是一个具有代表性的剧种。作为一个独立的剧种,京剧的诞生大约是在1840年至1860年。京剧是在吸收其他地方戏营养的基础上形成的。京剧有明确的角色分工;在念白上用北京方言;在音乐上以胡琴为主要伴奏乐器。由于京剧是在融合各种地方戏之精华的基础上形成的,所以它不仅为北京的观众所钟爱,也受到全国人民的喜爱。


【参考答案】


 To understand the Chinese culture, you have to know something about the Chinese opera culture. In China, there are many kinds of local operas, among which Peking Opera is a representative one. As an independent opera form, Peking Opera was approximately born between 1840 and 1860. Peking opera originated from absorbing the essentials of other local operas. In Peking Opera there is a clear division of roles; the spoken parts are in Beijing dialect; and huqin, is the main accompaniment instrument. Since Peking Opera has combined the cream of various local operas, it is enjoyed not only by Beijing audience, but also by people all over the country.


【难点精析】


 

  1.要了解中国文化,就应该对中国的戏曲文化有所了解:该句没有给出明确的主语,因而在翻译时要注意:增译主语you。“中国的戏曲文化”可译为the Chinese opera culture

  2.中国地方戏种类很多,其中京剧是一个具有代表性的剧种:该句在翻译时可以采用非限定性定语从句结构。该句可译为:In China, there are many kinds of local operas, among which Peking Opera is a representative one.注意此处为了避免在前后分句中重复使用名词opera而在后半句中使用了名词性替代词 one

  3.京剧是在吸收其他地方戏营养的基础上形成的:“在……的基础上形成”如果直接译为be formed on the I basis of...会稍显生硬,因而可以灵活译为originate from...。“地方戏”可以直译为local opera

  4.念白:“念白”指的是中国戏曲中人物的独白或者两者的对话,因而此处在翻译时可将其灵活译为the I spoken parts

  5.胡琴:这一特有名词在英文中并没有直接对应的词汇或表达,因而可以采用汉语拼音表示。

  6.它不仅为北京的观众所钟爱,也受到全国人民的喜爱:“不仅 也 ”常用not onlybut also…来表达。此处句中的“钟爱”和“喜爱”同义,在翻译后半部分内容时可以将与前半部分重复的内容省略,故该部分内容可译为:it is enjoyed not only by Beijing audience, but also by people all over the country

 

【题目内容】:


  北京有无数的胡同(hutong)。平民百姓在胡同里的生活给古都北京带来了无穷的魅力。北京的胡同不仅仅是平民百姓的生活环境,而且还是一门建筑艺术。通常,胡同内有一个大杂院,房间够410个家庭的差不多20 口人住。所以,胡同里的生活充满了友善和人情味。如今,随着社会和经济的飞速发展,很多胡同被新的高楼大厦所取代。但愿胡同可以保留下来。


【参考答案】


    In Beijing, there are numerous hutongs. The life of common people in hutongs brings endless charm to the ancient capital, Beijing. The hutong in Beijing is not only the living environment of common people but also a kind of architecture. Usually, there is a courtyard complex inside hutong, with rooms shared by 4 to 10 families of about 20 people. Therefore, life in hutongs is full of friendliness and genuine humanity. Nowadays, with rapid social and economic development, many hutongs are replaced by new tall buildings. I hope hutongs can be preserved.


【难点精析】


  1.带来了无穷的魅力:翻译为bring endless charm to。

  2.汉语习惯于用并列的散句或短语来表达一个语境,而英文习惯上用整句表述,句内不太重要的信息会用介词短语或从句来补充说明,如本段中“胡同内有一个大杂院,房间够4到10个家庭的差不多20口人住”是:两个并列关系的汉语短句,翻译成英文时可将第二句用with介词结构表达出来,起补充说明的作用。

  3.充满友善和人情味:翻译为full of friendliness and genuine humanity。

  4.随着社会和经济的飞速发展:翻译为with rapid social and economic development,也是with介词短语的应用,在句中作伴随状语。

 

 

【题目内容】:


  中国是世界上最大的发展中国家,人口约占世界总人口的22%。在过去相当长的时期里,由于诸多原因,贫困一直困扰着中国。20世纪80年代中期,中国农村绝大多数地区凭借自身的发展优势,经济得到快速增长,但少数地区由于经济、社会、历史、自然等方面的制约,发展相对滞后。中国政府在致力于经济和社会全面发展的进程中,在全国范围内实施了以解决贫困人口温饱问题为主要目标的有计划、有组织的大规模扶贫开发,极大地缓解了贫困现象。


【参考答案】


  China is the largest developing country in the world and its population accounts for about

22 percent of the world’s total. For a long period of its history, China has been plagued by

poverty for various reasons. In the mid-1980s, the economy of an overwhelming majority

of the rural areas in China grew dramatically by virtue of their own advantages, but a small

number of areas still lagged behind because of the constraints of their economic, social,

historical, and natural conditions. The Chinese government, while working on all-round

economic and social development, has nationwide implemented a large-scale program

for development-oriented poverty relief in a planned and organized way.

With the main objective of helping poverty-stricken people solve the food and

clothing problems,this program has gone a long way toward alleviating poverty.


【难点精析】


  1.发展中国家:英语中对应的表达为developing country,该句结构简单,直译即可。2.人口约占世界总人口的……:此句紧接上文,和前面一个分句共享一个主语China,为了指代清楚并且避免重复,此处的“人口”可译为its population。表达“(数量、比例上)占”有一个常用的词组account for。“世界总人口”如果直译的话是the worlds total population或者the total population of the world,但是由于该分句的主语中已经出现了一次population,故此处可将total活用作名词,意为“总数”。

  3.在过去相当长的时期里:该分句如果直译的话可译为for a long time in the past,但是根据语境,此处“相当长的时期”指的是“中国历史中的一个很长的时期”,又由于该分句所在句的主语随后紧接着出现,因而可以意译为for a long period of its history。

4.由于诸多原因:此处较为简单,可以有多种译法。“由于”可以用because of, due to, out of来表达,也可以用一个简洁的单词for。“诸多”的表达方式也有很多,如many, various, a lot of, lots of等。因而该分句可简洁地译为for various reasons。

5.贫困一直困扰着……:表达“被贫困所困扰”较为常用的译法是be plagued by,由于此处表达的是过去已经发生并且其影响持续到现在的一种状态,因而注意时态要采用现在完成时。此处可译为…has been plagued by poverty。

  6. 20世纪80年代中期……发展相对滞后:该句较长,翻译时要注意平衡句子的结构。“经济发展较快”中的“经济”指的是“中国农村绝大多数地区的经济”,在翻译时可以照此调整一下句子的语序。“滞后”常用lag behind 来表达。

7.中国政府在致力于……缓解了贫困现象:该句内容较多,翻译时可以根据语义将该长句拆分成两个独立的句子,即:“中国政府在致力于经济和社会全面发展的进程中,在全国范围内实施了有计划、有组织的大规模扶贫开发。扶贫开发以解决贫困人口的温饱问题为主要目标,极大地缓解了贫困现象。” “致力于”可以用短语work on来表达。“扶贫开发”实际上是一个项目,因而可灵活译为a program for development oriented poverty relief。

 

英语六级考试改革后,翻译部分由原来的单句汉译英“换装”为段落汉译英,四级翻译段落有140-160个汉字,六级有180-200个汉字。

稳定心态,挖掘考点、有的放矢,增强训练是攻克翻译这座大山的不二法宝。

1.  挖掘考点:

由样题和2012年12月的真题可以看出,翻译题越来越重视中国的历史、文化,也就是越来越接地气。所以,建议考生有意识的积累和背诵一些和中国节日、历史事件、经济和社会发展相关的词汇。关注以反映中国社会为主的一些英文杂志和报纸。例如中国日报及其网站。大家每天看看网站中头条新闻,配合中文新[微博]闻的背景,就可以学到很多表达。推荐一个中国日报网站下面的一个小栏目:language tips,有大量简单实用的双语文章。

2.  实战演练:

【汉译英1】波士顿咨询公司最近做的一项研究显示,到2020年中国将会有2.2亿家庭收入在2万到100万美元的富裕消费者。这些消费者中75%住在“较小城市”。随着网络的发展,较小城市的消费者的一种必然趋势是他们更加依赖社交网络服务上的信息。很多网络顾客都是通过微信、微博和QQ空间分组的。据估计今年中国将会有2.5亿消费者进行网购,位于四线城市的消费者平均每人会花费他们50%或者更高的工资在网购上,这一数据要比一线城市的消费者的花费高。

【参考译文】A recent  study conducted by the Boston Consulting Group  says there will be 220 million affluent consumers, who  are from households  earning between $ 20,000 to $  1 million, in China by 2020, and  75 percent of them will live  insmallercities.  With the development  of the  Internet, an inevitable trend among these consumers is they are  much more dependent on information from social networking services. Many  of the  websites customers aregroupedby Wechat, Weibo and QQ Zones.  It is  now estimated that 250  million Chinese consumers will  shop online this year and  the average shopper  in a  fourth-tier city in China  will spend 50 percent  or more of their income on e-commerce than those in  top-tier cities

【汉译英2】聘金是中国传统习俗的一部分。这一习惯在整个中国都很普遍。但是近几年来其标准不断上升,致使大多数家庭都很难达到。高额的聘礼常常“抢劫”了新郎父母必生的积蓄,甚至引起家庭纠纷。此外,许多新婚夫妇被迫举行奢侈的婚礼宴会,在这个过程中,大量债务的累积可能使他们的新婚生活变得辛酸,至少在最初阶段是这样。想想老一辈节俭的婚礼,虽然简简单单,但也幸福美满,没有给他们婚后的生活带来任何负担。

【参考译文】Endowment may be part of Chinese tradition, but  the standards have  become so high in recent  years that a majority of families are finding it difficult to meet them. The  high endowment amounts often rob groomsparents  of their lifes savings  and causes family disputes. Besides, many newly married couples  are forced to host extravagant wedding ceremonies to keep up  with the Joneses and, in the process, run up huge  debts that could turn their married life sour,  at least in the initial phase.  Considering the frugal  wedding of many parents, simple but happiness, didnt have any bearing on their married life

英语四六级考试改革以后,翻译题型也随之发生了变化。但正所谓“万变不离其宗”,只要抓住了关键的考点,进行有针对性的复习,还是会得到不错的分数的。

       在英语六级考试作文中,很多需要考试针对题目提出的主题写出自己的思考,但是时间紧迫,一时无法找到合适的句型来表达自己的观点,下面针对几种类别的主题,我们给出一些句子,希望大家能够应用上。

  1. 生活时间角度

  (1) we have been always considering sth (recreational activities) as something to relax ourselves or something that can add color to the dull routine of every day life.

  我们一直认为娱乐活动可以让我们放松,可以为我们每天枯燥的生活增添一些色彩。

  (2) Sth will make our life more enjoyable, that is to say, sth can add color to the dull routine of every day life.

  Sth可以使我们的生活更加有乐趣,也就是说,sth为我们每天枯燥的生活增添了一些色彩。

  (3) For the majority of people, reading or learning a new skill has become the focus of their lives and the source of their happiness and contentment

  n 对大多数人来讲,阅读或学习一项新技术已成为他们生活的中心和快乐的来源

  (4)Furthermore, students living in their own home would have access to a comfortable life and have more opportunities to communicate with their parents, which have beneficial impact on development of their personal character.

  而且,学生生活在自己家中,有舒适的生活,并有更多机会和父母交流,这对他们个性的培养是有利的。

  (5) sth, by occupying spare time so constructively, makes a person contented, with no time for boredom.

  Sth 很有建设意义的占据了人们的空余时间,使得人们很满足,进而没有时间来觉得无聊。(6)Sth does not occupy students’ too much time. In fact, it is unhealthy for them to spend all of time on their study. As an old saying goes: All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

  Sth 不会占据学生太多的时间.实际上让他们把所有的时间都花在学习上也是不健康的,就如一句俗话所说:劳逸结合。

  (7)What‘s more, living in school can save them a great deal of time on the way between home and school everyday, so they would be able to concentrate more time and energy on their academic work.

  而且,生活在学校里能节省大量每天往返于学校和家的路上的时间,这会使他们有更多的时间和精力放在学习上。

  (8)Furthermore, students living in their own home would have access to a comfortable life and have more opportunities to communicate with their parents, which have beneficial impact on development of their personal character.

  而且,学生生活在自己家中,有舒适的生活,并有更多机会和父母交流,这对他们个性的培养是有利的。

  2.知识经验角度

  (1)Little by little, our knowledge will be well enriched, and our horizons will be greatly broadened.

  逐渐的,我们的知识会得到增加,我们的视野将会大大的拓宽。

  (2)For people who want to adopt a healthy and meaningful life style, it is important to find time to learn certain new knowledge. Just as an old saying goes: it is never too late to learn.

  对于那些想过上健康而有意义的生活的人们来说,找时间学习一些新知识是很重要的,正如那句老话:活到老,学到老

  (3)The majority of students believe that part-time job will provide them with more opportunities to develop their interpersonal skills, which may put them in a favorable position in the future job markets.

  大部分学生相信业余工作会使他们有更多机会发展人际交往能力,而这对他们未来找工作是非常有好处的。

  (4)Many parents believe that additional educational activities enjoy obvious advantage. By extra studies, they maintain, their children are able to obtain many kinds of practical skills and useful knowledge, which will put them in a beneficial position in the future job markets when they grow up.

  许多家长相信额外的教育活动有许多优点,通过学习,他们的孩子可以获得很多实践技能和有用的知识,当他们长大后,这些对他们就业是大有好处的。

  (5)By taking a major-related part-job, students can not only improve their academic studies, but gain much experience, experience they will never be able to get from the textbooks.

  通过做一份和专业相关的工作,学生不仅能够提高他们的专业能力,而且能获得从课本上得不到的经验。

  (6)Now people in growing numbers are beginning to believe that learning new skills and knowledge contributes directly to enhancing their job opportunities or promotion opportunities.

  现在越来越多的人开始相信学习新的技术和知识能直接帮助他们获得工作就会或提升的机会。

  (7)In the first place, extra studies bring about unhealthy impacts on physical growth of children. Educational experts point out that, it is equally important to take some sport activities instead of extra studies when children have spent the whole day in a boring classroom.

  n 首先,额外的学习对孩子们的身体发育是不利的。教育专家指出,孩子们在枯燥的教室里呆了一整天后,从事一些体育活动,而不是额外的学习,是非常重要的。
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