2012年6月英语六级完形填空训练(1)

  Public image refers to how a company is viewed by its customers, suppliers, and stockholders, by the financial community, by the communities 62 it operates, and by federal and local govemments. Public image is controllable 63 considerable extent, just as the product, price, place, and promotional efforts are.

  A firm’s public image plays a vital role in the 64 of the firm and its products to employees, customers, and to such outsiders 65 stockholders, suppliers, creditors ,government officials, as well as 66 special groups. With some things it is impossible to 67 all the diverse publics: for example, a new highly automated plant may meet the approval of creditors and stockholders, 68 it will undoubtedly find 69 from employees who see their jobs 70 .

     On the other hand, high and service standards should bring almost complete approval, 71 low and 72 claims would be widely looked down up on. A firm’s public image, if it is good, should be treasured and protected. It is a valuable 73 that usually is built up over a long and satisfying relationship of a firm with publics. If a firm has learned a quality image, it is not easily 74 or imitated by competitors. Such an image may enable a firm to 75 higher prices, to win the best distributors and dealers, to attract the best employees, to expect the most 76 creditor relationships and lowest borrowing costs. It should also allow the firm’s stock to command higher price-earnings 77 than other firms in the same industry with such a good reputation and public image.

  A number of factors affect the public image of a corporation. 78 include physical 79 , contacts of outsiders 80 company employees, product quality and dependability, prices 81 to competitors, customer service, the kind of advertising and the media and programs used, and the use of public relations and publicity.

  62.
  [A] which
  [B] what
  [C] where
  [D] whom
  63.
  [A] in
  [B] within
  [C] on
  [D] to
  64.
  [A] attraction
  [B] attachment
  [C] affection
  [D] generalization
  65.
  [A] and
  [B] with
  [C] as
  [D] for
  66.
  [A] converse
  [B] diverse
  [C] reverse
  [D] universe
  67.
  [A] satisfy
  [B] treat
  [C] amuse
  [D] entertain
  68.
  [A] so
  [B] then
  [C] thus
  [D] but
  69.
  [A] support
  [B] identification
  [C] compliment
  [D] resistance
  70.
  [A] ensured
  [B] promoted
  [C] threatened
  [D] unemployed
  71.
  [A] because
  [B] while
  [C] though
  [D] when
  72.
  [A] false
  [B] fake
  [C] artificial
  [D] counterfeit
  
  73.
  [A] fortune
  [B] asset
  [C] possession
  [D] property
  74.
  [A] countered
  [B] defeated
  [C] repelled
  [D] compelled
  75.
  [A] pay
  [B] get
  [C] order
  [D] charge
  76.
  [A] favorite
  [B] prosperous
  [C] favorable
  [D] prospective
  77.
  [A] rate
  [B] ratio
  [C] ration
  [D] interest
  78.
  [A] These
  [B] They
  [c] that
  [D] It
  79.
  [A] appliances
  [B] equipment
  [C] devices
  [D] facilities
  80.
  [A] on
  [B] with
  [C] in
  [D] along
  81.
  [A] relative
  [B] related
  [C] reliable
  [D] reconcilable

      大意:本文主要介绍了企业公众形象这一话题。公众形象对于一个企业起着至关重要的作用,因此需要保护好企业的良好形象,因为它对企业来说是非常有价值的资产。文中提到一些因素或许会对企业的形象产生一定影响。

【答案见下页】
  
  Coffee can be considered one of nature’s greatest gifts. It gives mental and emotional 62 without harmful side effects, and it 63 a wealth of nutrients. Yet, when most people drink coffee, they are not thinking that the beverage is 64 their
  health. In fact, some may even feel a little guilty, 65 some believe coffee isn’t good for you at all.
  Well, coffee, like anything else, can cause problems if too much is 66 . Moderate consumption of coffee 67 your body with a wealth of antioxidants. These substances are responsible 68 eliminating free radicals. They are the chemical byproducts produced any time your body does, something. A small number of them can help serve 69 a buffer against negative elements, if they aren’t 70 in check.
  they can cause health problems. Antioxidants ensure that this doesn’t happen.
  The psychological effects of caffeine cannot be 71either. Not only does caffeine make you more 72 , but it can actually affect your mood. If you were feeling 73 or overwhelmed, a nice cup of coffee could change your 74 .The stack of work that seemed impossible before isn’t even a problem now.
  75., caffeine helps stimulate creativity as it speeds up the body’s functioning. That’s why coffee is often 76 with writers and other intellectual professions. Other drugs 77 to make people dumber. Consider what happens when people get high off of crack or when they get drunk off of alcohol. They won’t be 78 at all. But with coffee, an individual gets a creative boost 79 still helping their bodies.
  In conclusion, don’t feel bad when you’re brewing your morning cup of coffee. 80. a can of soda or a shot of alcohol, coffee will make you feel wonderful while keeping you healthy. Just remember, you do have to consume the beverage in 81 .
  62.
  [A] clean
  [B] clarity
  [C] brightness
  [D] clear
  63.
  [A] combines
  [B] contents
  [C] consists
  [D] contains
  64.
  [A] improving
  [B] harming
  [C] threatening
  [D] stimulating
  65.
  [A] and
  [B] but
  [C] since
  [D] while
  66.
  [A] consumed
  [B] conducted
  [C] engaged
  [D] attracted
  67.
  [A] provides
  [B] attributes
  [C] absorbs
  [D] attaches
  68.
  [A] with
  [B] of
  [C] for
  [D] to
  69.
  [A] for
  [B]for
  [C] to
  [D] with
  70.
  [A] taken
  [B] made
  [C] put
  [D] kept
  71.
  [A] ignored
  [B] abandoned
  [C] deleted
  [D] canceled
  72.
  [A] stern
  [B] shrewd
  [C] alert
  [D] nasty
  73.
  [A] immersed
  [B] depressed
  [C] oppressed
  [D] compelled
  74.
  [A] interpretive
  [B] relative
  [C] representative
  [D] perspective
  75.
  [A] On the contrary
  [B] On the other hand
  [C] In addition
  [D] At last
  76.
  [A] associated
  [B] connected
  [C] coincided
  [D] compared
  77.
  [A] intend
  [B] tend
  [C] extend
  [D] pretend
  78.
  [A] deliberate
  [B] credible
  [C] accurate
  [D] functional
  79.
  [A] though
  [B] while
  [C] before
  [D] until
  80.
  [A] Like
  [B] Whether
  [C] Either
  [D] Unlike
  81.
  [A] moderation
  [B] particular
  [C] meditation
  [D] standard
【答案见下页】
  “改错的目的是测试学生综合运用语言的能力”。改错题的主要错误类型有主谓不一致、时态和语态错误、连接词误用、形容词与副词错误、反义词误用、非谓语动词错误、关系代词错误、介词错误、缺漏和赘述、句子结构等等。考生在做改错题时,首先应通读短文,对文章有个大致的了解。然后,仔细读出现10个错误的所在行,一般来说,每个错误基本都可以归入上述的某一个错误类型,看有没有出现语法错误和词汇错误。如果通过细读确认没有语法错误和词汇错误,那就把细读扩大到该行上下各二、三行,有时甚至要联系该行所在的自然段,这时的重点必须转移到对文章的理解上来,从上下文的关系找出连接关系和逻辑关系的前后矛盾的错误。最后应再通读一篇改正后的文章,看整篇文章总体上是否连贯一致。

  以往六级考试中曾经出现过改错题,下面结合历年六级的改错题来看一下改错题不同的错误类型。

  1、反义词误用

  这是短文改错中出现频率较高也是比较有特色的一种错误类型,这类错误必须在透彻理解上下文语义的基础上才能发现并改正。比较常见的错误有:

  a、派生反义词

  如00年1月的72题将directly改为indirectly。

  b、其他反义词

  如00年1月的77题将little改为much。

  2、连接词误用

  连接词的错误虽然是属于传统的语法题范畴,但其用法主要根据上下文语义上的逻辑关系,也就是上下文的理解。连接词有很多种,有并列连词,如and, but, or等,主从连词,如because, if, after等,以及其他连接介词和副词,如however, despite等。曾经考查过的题目有2000年6月的73题,将as改为than,这考查的是比较连词的搭配,根据上一行中之more即可确定改as为than。

  3、指代错误

  这一般考查的是代词的指代,在文章当中如果说出现了代词,那么代词所指代的对象在前文中一定是出现过的,否则就会出现指代不清,所以出现代词时候,我们要注意它所指代的对象的单复数是否与代词一致。如2003年9月的S9题将it改为they,因为它指代的是前面的复数名词new houses。再如2002年6月的S9题,将it改为them,因为指代的对象是前文中的immigrants,仍然是个复数名词,当然同时还要注意区分主格和宾格。

  4、介词错误

  这是改错中最常见的一种错误,当然这也包括一些用法搭配上的错误,这种错误在历年的考试当中出现的频率非常高。如2000年1月的73题,将into改为on或onto,才能与planet相搭配。再如2000年6月的10道改错题中有3道涉及到介词错误,分别是71、75和78题。做对这类题目最重要的是平常的积累,尤其是一些动词词组的搭配,虽然在词汇部分出现的已经很少了,但有可能在改错题中出现,当然这占的比重并不是很大,所以大家平常在英语学习当中适当注意即可。

  5、名词和冠词的错误

  最近比较经常考查名词的错误的是关于名词的单复数问题,如2000年1月的75题,将planet根据上下文改为复数形式。而对于冠词的考查,主要是单数名词前面一定要有一个冠词来修饰,如2002年6月的S1题在new one前要加一个不定冠词a。

  6、非谓语动词

  非谓语动词分为三类:不定式、动名词和分词。其中分词又分为现在分词和过去分词,其特点是:不定式、动名词和分词可以做很多句子成分,但就是不能单独做谓语,这也是它们被称为“非谓语动词”的原因。这也是在四六级考试改错中常见的错误。如2000年1月的78题将consider改为considering。

  7、主谓不一致

  产生这种错误的主要原因是没有找对句子的主语,英语追求形式上的完美,所以有时候句子的结构非常复杂,这也是为什么我们一直强调难句分析在英语复习中的重要性。句子的结构一般是“主谓宾”或“主系表”,正确地找出各个句子成分对于阅读也是非常有帮助的。如2002年6月的S7题,这一行中有一个倒装语序,所以有的同学会找不出句子的主语,因而找不到错误。答案是把lies改为lie,因为该句的主语是复数two myths。

  8、形容词与副词错误

  这类错误一般是形容词与副词的误用,形容词一般用来修饰名词,而副词可以修饰动词和形容词,往往出题者就会把该用副词的地方误用为形容词。如2003年12月的S3题应将relative改为副词形式relatively,因为它是用来修饰isolated的。

  9、并列结构

  像有or或and连接的一般是并列结构,前后的形式一般来说应该是一样的,如2003年12月的S6题,将politics改为political,与其他两个形容词economic和environmental相并列。

  10、关系词的误用

  这一类错误主要是针对定语从句的,读者可以找一本语法书对定语从句做个回顾复习。这几年考题中出现的错误有00年1月的79题中在定语从句中多了一个they,应该划去。

  11、时态的错误

  这也是改错中常见的考法。如00年6月76题考查的就是时态,综观短文,全部用过去时态,因而前后应该一致。

  当然,除了以上提到的11大类错误之外,还有一些关于上下文逻辑错误,包括上下文语义矛盾和逻辑关系错误等等,这需要通读全文,了解大意方可做对。总之大家在平时复习时要善于总结,在考试时要耐心仔细才能将答对率提高。

      2011年12月英语六级完形填空按类型解题

  一.语法题:六级完形填空最常考的语法就是定语从句的引导词。做该题的方法是:首先,将选项代入题目中;然后,假设从句类型;最后,再看是否符合从句条件。因此,要求大家对定语从句的知识要有所了解。例如:This new NSF network __74__ more and more institutional users, many of __75__ had their own internal networks.( 2009.6),此题中75题是一道语法题,将 A)what代入题目中,那就假设为名词性从句,因为what只能用在名词性从句当中,但名词性从句是不会用任何标点符号与主句隔开的,因此,A)what不选。将B)which代入题目中,那就假设为定语从句,因为which只有能用于定语从句中,而该句话是非限制性定语从句,因此,B)which为正确选项。而C)these,D)them是代词而不是非限制性定语从句引导词。
  75. A)what B)which C)these D)them

  二.连词题:即一道题的选项考的全部是连词。做该类题型的方法是:

  首先,要找到连词所连接的两个句子,因为连词的作用就是连接两个彼此间存在逻辑关系的句子;接着,读懂两个句子的意思,一般通过提取主干,这样可以节约时间,还可以避免一些不会的单词,语法和句子结构;最后,将选项带入到题目中,因为正确答案是要通过对所有答案的比较选出最佳答案的。例如:Subway said that it worked hard to the impact of litter on communities, it was "still down to the customer to dispose of their litter responsibly". (2009.12),此句话中的78题考的是连词题,78题所连接的两个句子即78题逗号前一句和其后一句,前一句大概是说,“subway努力工作针对垃圾对社区影响的问题”,后一句是说“它让顾客有责任地去处理垃圾问题”,也就是说subway不去管垃圾的问题了,因此,前后两句话的意思发生了转折,所有此题选了D) but。
  78. A) if B) whether C) so D) but

  三.搭配题:即一道题的选项是与题目所在的句子中的某个单词构成搭配或选项本身就是搭配。做该题的方法主要在于要有一定的短语和词组的积累,再读懂句子的意思,最后选出一个最佳答案,另外还要能在较复杂的句子中看出词与词的搭配关系。例如: If you live in a suburb or a city with good parks, take __80__ of what's there. (2010.6),此题中80题所在的位置能够用到的选项有A) advantage:take advantage of...: 利用……和D) charge:take charge of...: 接管......,而该句话的大概意思是“如果你住在郊区或城市,并且它们还带有好的公园,你应该利用那里有的一切。”因此,该题选了A) advantage。
  80. A) advantage B) exception C) measure D) charge

  四.介词题:即一道题的选项考的全部是介词。做该类题型的方法是:
  首先,看题目前是否出现了可以与介词产生搭配的词;接着,如果没有,再去考虑题目后面的名词应该用什么样的介词与其搭配。如果前面两步就已经能让考生得出正确答案,则不必浪费时间去读懂介词所在的整句话的意思,但如果前面两步还不足以让考生得出最终答案,则要通过最后一步,即靠介词本身的含义和句子的意思来选出最佳答案。例如:Fast foods and TVs have been __64__ us for a long time. (2010.6),此句话中的64题前没有可以与介词产生的搭配的词,该题后有us代表我们,其中B) along的意思为“沿着”与us不搭配,而整句话的意思大概是说“众多快餐和电视节目已经陪伴我们很长时间了”,以下选项中只有D) with可以表示“陪伴,伴随”的意思。
  64. A) amongst B) along C) beside D) with


  总之,由于以上题型所涉及的词汇都很简单,而且做题方法都易掌握,因此,要在较短时间做对它们不是件困难的事。
2011年12月英语六级完形填空训练(8)

  According to BT's futurologist, Ian Pearson, these are among the developments scheduled for the first few decades of the new millennium(a period of 1,000 years), when supercomputers will dramatically accelerate progress in all areas of life.

  Pearson has __1__ together to work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a __2__ millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key __3__ and discoveries to take place. Some of the biggest developments will be in medicine, including an __4__ life expectancy and dozens of artificial organs __5__ into use between now and 2040.

  Pearson also __6__ a breakthrough in computer human links. "By linking __7__ to our nervous system, computers could pick up __8__ we feel and, hopefully, simulate __9__ too so that we can start to __10__ full sensory environments, rather like the holidays in Total Recall or the Star Trek holodeck," he says.

  But that, Pearson points __11__, is only the start of man-machine __12__:"It will be the beginning of the long process of integration that will __13__ lead to a fully electronic human before the end of the next century."__14__ his research, Pearson is able to put dates to most of the breakthroughs that can be predicted. However, there are still no __15__ for when faster-than-light travel will be __16__, or when human cloning will be perfected, or when time travel will be possible.

  But he does __17__ social problems as a result of technological advances. A boom in neighborhood surveillance cameras will, for example, __18__ problems in 2010, while the arrival of synthetic __19__ robots will mean people may not be able to __20__ between their human friends and the droids. And home appliances will also become so smart that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout of a new psychological disorder-kitchen rage.

  1.[A]taken [B]pieced [C]kept [D]made
  2.[A]complicated [B]delicate [C]subtle [D]unique
  3.[A]breakthroughs [B]findings [C]events [D]incidents
  4.[A]expanded [B]extended [C]enlarged [D]enriched
  5.[A]being [B]becoming [C]carrying [D]coming
  6.[A]schedules [B]plans [C]predicts [D]designs
  7.[A]directly [B]instantly [C]precisely [D]automatically
  8.[A]that [B]how [C]what [D]all
  9.[A]thinking [B]hearing [C]sight [D]feeling
  10.[A]form [B]develop [C]find [D]undertake
  11.[A]out [B]at [C]to [D]toward
  12.[A]program [B]production [C]experiment [D]integration
  13.[A]finally [B]ultimately [C]utterly [D]absolutely
  14.[A]Through [B]Though [C]During [D]By
  15.[A]forecasts [B]articles [C]stories [D]meetings
  16.[A]advisable [B]affordable [C]available [D]valuable
  17.[A]solve [B]arose [C]exercise [D]expect
  18.[A]confront [B]cause [C]witness [D]collect
  19.[A]lovely [B]likely [C]lifelike [D]lively
  20.[A]distinguish [B]differ [C]diagnose [D]deviate

【答案见下页】
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