A great many cities are experiencing difficulties which

  are nothing new in the history of cities, except in their scale.

  Some cities have lost their original purpose and have not found

  new one. And any large or rich city is going to attract poorS1. __________

  immigrants, who flood in, filling with hopes of prosperityS2. __________

  which are then often disappointing. There are backward towns

  on the edge of Bombay or Brasilia, just as though there wereS3. __________

  on the edge of seventeenth-century London or early nine-

  teenth-century Paris. This is new is the scale. DescriptionsS4. __________

  written by eighteenth-century travelers of the poor of Mexico

  City, and the enormous contrasts that was to be found there,S5. __________

  are very dissimilar to descriptions of Mexico City today—theS6. __________

  poor can still be numbered in millions.

  The whole monstrous growth rests on economic prosper-

  ity, but behind it lies two myths: the myth of the city as aS7. __________

  promised land, that attracts immigrants from rural povertyS8. __________

  and brings it flooding into city centers, and the myth of theS9. __________

  country as a Garden of Eden, which, a few generations late,S10. __________

  sends them flooding out again to the suburbs.

  【答案请见下页】

    Sporting activities are essentially modified forms of

  hunting behavior. Viewing biologically, the modernS1. __________

  footballer is revealed as a member of a disguised hunting

  pack. His killing weapon has turned into a harmless football

  and his prey into a goal-mouth. If his aim is inaccurate and heS2. __________

  scores a goal, enjoys the hunter’s triumph of killing his prey.

  To understand how this transformation has taken place weS3. __________

  must briefly look up at our ancient ancestors. They spent over aS4. __________

  million year evolving as co-operative hunters. Their very survivalS5. __________

  depended on success in the hunting-field. Under this pressure

  their whole way of life, even if their bodies, became radicailyS6. __________

  changed. They became chasers, runners, jumpers, aimers,

  throwers and prey-killers. They co-operate as skillful male-groupS7. __________

  attackers.

  Then, about ten thousand years ago, when this immenselyS8. __________

  long formative period of hunting for food, they became

  farmers. Their improved intelligence, so vital to their old

  hunting life, were put to a new use—that of penning (把S9. __________

  ……关在圈中), controlling and domesticating their prey. The

  food was there on the farms, awaiting their needs. The risks and

  uncertainties of farming were no longer essential for survival.S10.__________

  【答案请见下页】

  More people die of tuberculosis (结核病) than of any

  other disease caused by a single agent. This has probably

  been the case in quite a while. During the early stages of S1. ________

  the industrial revolution, perhaps one in every seventh S2. ________

  deaths in Europe's crowded cities were caused by the S3. ________

  disease. From now on, though, western eyes, missing the S4. ________

  global picture, saw the trouble going into decline. With

  occasional breaks for war, the rates of death and

  infection in the Europe and America dropped steadily S5. ________

  through the 19th and 20th centuries. In the 1950s, the

  introduction of antibiotics (抗菌素) strengthened the

  trend in rich countries, and the antibiotics were allowed

  to be imported to poor countries. Medical researchers S6. ________

  declared victory and withdrew.

  They are wrong. In the mid-1980s the frequency of S7. ________

  infections and deaths started to pick up again around the

  world. Where tuberculosis vanished, it came back; in S8. ________

  many places where it had never been away, it grew better. S9. ________

  The World Health Organization estimates that 1.7

  billion people (a third of the earth's population) suffer

  from tuberculosis. Even when the infection rate was

  falling, population growth kept the number of clinical

  cases more or less constantly at 8 million a year. Around S10. ________

  3 million of those people died, nearly all of them in poor countries.

  【答案请见下页】

  Sporting activities are essentially modified forms of hunting

  behavior. Viewing biologically, the modern footballer is revealed as a S1.________

  member of a disguised hunting pack. His killing weapon has turned into

  a harmless football and his prey into a goal-mouth. If his aim is inaccurate S2.________

  and he scores a goal, enjoys the hunter's triumph of killing his prey. S3._________

  To understand how this transformation has taken place we

  must briefly look up at our ancient ancestors. They spent over a S4.________

  million year evolving as co-operative hunters. Their very survival S5._______

  depended on success in the hunting-field. Under this pressure their whole

  way of life, even if their bodies, became radically changed. They became S6.________

  chasers, runners, jumpers, aimers, throwers and prey-killers.

  They co-operate as skillful male-group attackers. S7.________

  Then, about ten thousand years ago, when this immensely long S8.________

  formative period of hunting for food, they became farmers. Their

  improved intelligence, so vital to their old hunting life, were put to a new S9._______

  use-that of penning ( 把……关在圈中), controlling and domesticating

  their prey. The food was there on the farms, awaiting their needs. The

  risks and uncertainties of farming were no longer essential for survival. S10._______

  【答案请见下页】

    The Seattle Times Company is one newspaper firm that

  has recognized the need for change and done something about

  it. In the newspaper industry, papers must reflect the diversity

  of the communities to which they provide information.

  It must reflect that diversity with their news coverage or risk  S1._______

  losing their readers' interest and their advertisers' support.

  Operating within Seattle, which has 20 percents racial  S2.________

  minorities, the paper has put into place policies and

  procedures for hiring and maintain a diverse workforce. The S3._______

  underlying reason for the change is that for information to be

  fair, appropriate, and subjective, it should be reported by the  S4._________

  same kind of population that reads it.

  A diversity committee composed of reporters, editors, and

  photographers meets regularly to value the Seattle Times'  S5.________

  content and to educate the rest of the newsroom staff about

  diversity issues. In an addition, the paper instituted a content  S6.________

  audit(审查) that evaluates the frequency and manner of

  representation of woman and people of color in photographs.  S7._________

  Early audits showed that minorities were pictured far too

  infrequently and were pictured with a disproportionate

  number of negative articles. The audit results from  S8.________

  improvement in the frequency of majority representation and  S9.________

  their portrayal in neutral or positive situations. And, with a  S10._______

  result, the Seattle Times has improved as a newspaper.

  The diversity training and content audits helped the Seattle

  Times Company to win the Personnel Journal Optimal Award

  for excellence in managing change.

  【答案请见下页】

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