Informing the World

  Every day, the news of the world is relayed to people by over 300 million copies of daily papers, over 400 million radio sets, and over 150 million television sets. Additional news is shown by motion pictures, in theatres and cinemas all over the world. As more people learn what the important events of the day are, fewer are still concerned exclusively with the events of their own household. As the English writer John Donne put it nearly four hundred years ago, "no man is an island. " This idea is more appropriate today than it was when Donne lived. In short, wherever he lives, a man belongs to some society; and we are becoming more and more aware that whatever happens in one particular society affects, somehow, the life and destiny of all humanity.
  Newspapers have been published in the modern world for about four hundred years. Most of the newspapers printed today are read in Europe and North America. However, soon they may be read in all parts of the world, thanks to the new inventions that are changing the techniques of newspaper publishing.
  Electronics and automation have made it possible to produce pictures and text far more quickly than before. Photographic reproduction eliminates the need for type and printing presses. And fewer specialists, such as type-setters, are needed to produce a paper or magazine by the photo-offset (照相平板胶印) method. Therefore, the publishing of newspapers and magazines becomes more economical. Furthermore, photo-copies can be sent over great distances now by means of television channels and satellites such as Telstar. Thus, pictures can be brought to the public more quickly than previously.
  Machines that prepare printed texts for photo-copies are being used a great deal today. Thousands of letters and figures of different sizes and thicknesses can now be arranged on a black glass disc that is only eight inches in diameter, to be printed in negative form(white on a black background). The disc on the machine turns constantly at the rate of ten revolutions a second. A beam of light from a slroboscopic (频闪的) lamp shines on the desired letters and figures for about I wo-millionths of a second. Then the image of the letters and figures that were illuminated is projected onto a film through lenses. The section of film is large enough to hold the equivalent of a page of text. There is a keyboard in front of the machine that is similar to the keyboard of a typewriter, and the machine operator has only to strike the proper keys for the image of the corresponding letters to be immediately transferred to the film. The negative image on the film can quickly be transferred onto paper. This method makes it as easy to reproduce photographs and illustrations as it is to reproduce the text itself.
  Film, being light and small, can be sent rapidly to other places and used to print copies of the text where they are needed. Film images can also be projected easily on a movie or television screen. Television broadcasts are limited to an area that is within sight of the sending station or its relay ( 中继 ). Although television relays are often placed on hills and mountains so that they can cover a wider region, they still can not cover more land than one could see from the same hilltop on a clear day. However, the rays also go out into the atmosphere, and if there is a relay station on a satellite that revolves around the earth, it can transmit the pictures to any point on the earth from which the satellite is visible. Three satellites permanently revolving over the equator transmit any television program to any part of the earth. This makes it possible for world editions of newspapers to give the news in all countries at the same time. Some day it may be possible for a subscriber to a televised newspaper to press a button and see a newspaper page on his television screen. He could also decide when he wants the page to turn, and, by dialling different numbers such as those on a telephone dial, he could choose the language or the edition of the paper he wants to read. It seems strange to think that, even today, methods of the past are not entirely useless. For example, sometimes press agencies that use radio and Telstar use carrier pigeons to send messages between offices in large cities because the pigeons are not bothered by traffic problems.
  It may be some time before television sets become common in the average homes in Africa and Asia. However, radio is already rapidly becoming accessible to thousands of people in these areas. And, now that good radios are being made with transistors, and their price is gradually dropping because of mass production, it may not be" too long before radios become commonplace in areas which have no newspapers. Transistors make it possible for people to carry small radios wherever they go, without need of electric current. Even television sets are now operating on transistors, and the pocket TV may soon be as widespread
  as the pocket radio.
  Now that scientific progress is making it possible to send the news to all the
  inhabitants of the earth, it will be important to consider what news is going to be sent to them. No matter what criteria are used in making the decision, a decision must be made, since no one would' have time to read or listen to an account of everything there is going on in the world!
  People who have time to read several papers can already compare different reports of the same event. When an event has political significance, each paper reports it from the point of view of its own political beliefs or preferences. Ideally, of course, the expression of editorial opinion should be limited to the editorial page, and the news articles should be objective—telling the facts as completely as possible, without trying to give them a particular interpretation, or without otherwise trying to influence the reader's opinion. However, reporters and editors are only human, and if they have strong political beliefs it is almost impossible for them to hide them. If editors believe their point of view is best for the readers of their paper, what's to stop them from using the paper to try to influence public opinion? And if, some day, a world newspaper becomes a reality, will it be the most powerful press agencies that will choose the news to be sent out to all countries?

  1. The expression "no man is an island" means that no man lives surrounded by water.

  2. According to the author, it may not be long before people all over the world have access to newspapers.

  3. The transferring of newspaper texts to film is time-consuming and costly.

  4. Transistors are particularly useful because they are used in small radio and TV sets.

  5. Television relays are often placed on a hilltop so that they can reach a satellite.

  6. People are capable of knowing all the events going on in every part of the world.

  7. If a world newspaper becomes a reality, it will take more responsibility for informing all the readers of the latest news in the world.

  8. Newspapers have been published for about______.

  9. Any television program could be transmitted to any part of the world by______.

  10. It is ideal that the news articles______.
【答案见下页】

2010年6月英语六级考试查分问题集锦

证放学校号码忘记了或自己不小心弄丢了查不到分很着急,该怎么办。英语六级考试网为您支招:
  问题一:准考证丢失了还能不能查分?
  答:对不起,如果您的准考证丢失了,将无法确认您的考试成绩,不能为您提供网上查分和E-mail送分服务。您需要及时和相应考点取得联系,以便获得您此次CET考试的成绩。
  还记得你前后坐的是什么人?号码推算下?
  最好的办法:打电话到学校教务处查询,电脑都有记录你的准考号和成绩。最好是人亲自去或委托同学去教务处查,有些学校教务处老师比较忙可以能不会接电话哦。当初报名是通知各班班长收钱发放准考证,让班长或学习委员直接去找辅导员,打一张全班的成绩表都可以的。

问题二:2010年6月英语四六级考试成绩复核

如果考生要查自己的真实成绩,须凭学籍所在院校教务处出具的证明(含参加考试时间、考试级别、准考证号等)向全国大学英语四六级考试委员会办公室提出申请,各地考试管理中心不受理查分事宜
  全国大学英语四六级考试委员会负责人金艳表示,大学英语四六级考试中,考生成绩出现0分有两种情况:一种是考生总分低于220分,一种是考生缺考或被认定在考试中有作弊等违纪行为。


  问题三:为什么我英语六级成绩查询的结果前后不一样,我在网上查的分过了,可是成绩单一发下来,竟然没有过.对成绩有疑问怎么办?
  答:你的准考证号码有正确输入吗?一般以学校的成绩单为准,如果想申诉复查,请和四六级考试委员会联系。
  各考试中心会在考试后50天内将成绩寄给参加考试的学校。如考生对本人的成绩有疑,及学校教务处证明向有关考试中心提出查询,并交纳人工查询费。(各考试中心见下面)
  附:全国大学英语四、六级考试委员会
  通讯地址:上海邮政信箱30-14上海交通大学浩然高科技大厦2203室
  邮政编码:200030 电话:(021)62932756 传真(021)62826622
  北京考试中心
  通讯地址:北京市清华大学外语系转大学英语考试中心
  邮政编码:100084 电 话:(010)62772338
  分 管:北京、天津、河北、山西、内蒙古、辽宁、吉林、黑龙江。
  北京地区考生可拨打声讯台9516888199咨询四六级相关问题
  上海考试中心
  通讯地址:上海市上海交通大学外国语学院转大学英语考试中心
  邮政编码:200030 电 话:(021)62932759
  分管:上海、江苏、浙江、安徽、福建、江西、山东。
通讯地址:湖北武汉市武汉大学 外语学院转 大学英语考试中心
  邮政编码:430072 电 话:(027)87886790
  分 管:河南、湖北、湖南、广西、四川、贵州、云南、陕西、甘肃、青海、宁夏、新疆、重庆。
  问题四:2010年6月的英语六级成绩单什么时候发啊?急!!
  答:过了就好,再等几天。一般是开学后三个星期会发成绩单,也有拖到2个月的,有的学校快,有的慢,主要是统计成绩和通过率。
  问题四:大学毕业还能考六级吗?可以找辅导班报名吗?
  答:根据四六级考试改革的日程,从2007年起,社会考生将彻底无缘四六级考试。2007年1月1日开始,四六级必须是高校的在校生才有资格报考。四六级考试委员会没有委托什么培训机构或辅导班代报名的,最好不要去花冤枉钱。

2010年12月英语六级点睛词

[不指定 10/08/15 12:43 | by admin ]
     2010年12月英语六级点睛词

    笔者从一个阅卷人的角度去看,喜欢看到学生用的词。当然这也是因人而异的。另外,最近出的一个小的宣传手册上提到“六级写作和翻译中的高频词汇”,因为编辑匆忙,所以不是很靠谱,如entrepreneur, literacy,tariff等词作文中是不太可能用到的。鉴于此,列出好词如下。这些词还需要大家自己到范文或字典中查一下用法。
  1.access
  2.accomplish
  3.account
  4.achieve采集者退散
  5. acknowledge
  6.acquire
  7.adapt
  8.adopt
  9.afford
  10.apply
  11.approve
  12.argue
  13.arouse
  14.attach
  15.attribute
  16.benefit
  17.boost
  18.campaign
  19.challenge
  20.commit
  21.competent
  22.competition
  23.concentrate
  24.concept
  25.concern
  26.confront
  27.conquer
  28.considerable
  29.contribute
  30.controversial
  31.controversy
  32.coordinate
  33.critical
  34.crucial
  35.cultivate
  36.damage
  37.decade
  38.decline
  39.desirable
  40.despite
  41.emphasis
  42.emphasize
  43.enable
  44.engage
  45.enhance
  46.enormous
  47.enrich
  48.enroll
  49.ensure
  50.entitle
一个公式

  我们都知道英语与汉语在表达顺序上存在很大的差异,因此,这里我们先引出一个英语表达顺序的公式来。请记住:英语的表达语序基本上遵循以下这个顺序:
6-1-2-3-4-5-6
6(when)—1(who)—2(what)—3(whom)—4(how)—5(where)—6(when)
说明:6的位置很灵活,可以放前,也可以放后。
示例:
I ate an apple.
I ate an apple with a fork.
I ate an apple with a fork in the kitchen.
I ate an apple with a fork in the kitchen this morning.
以上四个句子从1-2-3模式一直到1-2-3-4-5-6模式,请大家逐个翻译一下,仔细对比英语顺序与汉语顺序的差异。
结论:英语和汉语在表达的最核心内容上是一致的:即一个句子的1-2-3是相同的;但是,在有了4-5-6后,汉语表达方式与英语这个自然表达顺序产生了巨大的词序差异:
汉语次信息先出现;英语主信息先出现
再如:
我喜欢那个女孩子
我喜欢那个穿红衣服的女孩子
我喜欢那个穿红衣服的不喜欢我的女孩子
这三个句子的核心内容都是:I like that girl.(与:“我喜欢那个女孩子”词序一致,但是,在添加了其它部分后,表达顺序全变样了!)
再如:
我打死一只苍蝇
我用手打死一只苍蝇
我用手打了三次打死一只苍蝇
我用手打了三次并在我助理的帮助下打死了一只苍蝇

这四个句子的核心内容都是:I killed a fly.(与“我打死一只苍蝇”词序一致,但是,在添加了其它部分后,表达顺序全变样了!)

逗号原则

在一个句子的前面如果有内容,那么,请记住:
1.不到3个单词时,可以用逗号与后面句子分隔开来,也可以不用逗号分隔,具体情况根据说话人自己确定的停顿语气长短来确定。
示例1:At last he stopped playing the piano.
示例2:Sadly he picked up the broken glass and went into the room.
2.达到或超过3个单词时,必须用逗号与后面句子分隔开来。
示例1:In the end, I could not bear it.
示例2:To my surprise, he bought me a ticket!
1个句子1个main verb(即:2)原则
理论上讲:一个句子只应该有一个为主的动词(即2)。
但是,实际运用的过程中,我们会发现一个句子中有多个动词,此时就需要:
标记清楚这些动词彼此间的逻辑关系!!!
这里的逻辑关系有两种情况:
1.并列(即:将这些动词视为地位相同;一般方式为使用and连接)
2.从属(即:牺牲某个或某些动词,将其处理成符合从属关系的方式,从而确保为主的动词;一般方式为使用动词三大非谓语形式:动词的ing形式、动词的过去分词形式、动词的不定式形式)
1.并列关系示例
示例1:I sat down beside her said nothing.
分析:sat与said之间没有标记逻辑关系,错误!可以添加and,形成并列关系,即:
I sat down beside her and said nothing.

示例2:I entered the room saw mother sit there wait for me come back.
分析:这里有5个动词,都没有标记逻辑关系,错误!通过分析,我们看到:entered和saw可以并列,因为它们拥有共同的1(I);sit和wait可以并列,因为它们拥有共同的1(mother),但这两组动词之间就不能再并列了,因为无法这么做。这就意味着:这句话里的动词有的可以并列,而有的不可以。
示例3:I opened the bag took out some paper and a pen, sat down started take notes.
分析:opened,took out,sat down,started这四个动词拥有共同的1(I),而且都是1直接行使或发出的动作,所以,可以采取并列关系;但take因为有个过渡层,因此并列处理不合适。

2.从属关系示例
示例1:I sat down beside her said nothing.
分析:动词关系混乱,假如想确保said,则需要牺牲后面,如:
I sat down beside her, saying nothing.
假如确保后面,则牺牲前面:
Sitting down beside her, I said nothing.
示例2:To quit smoking, I eat candies.
一个句子一个句号原则
理论上讲,一个句子一个句号,但是,实际中会有几个甚至多个句子摆放在一起共享一个句号。此时应该怎么办呢?
答案很简单:标记清楚这些句子间的逻辑关系。有两种:
1.并列关系示例
示例1:I sat down beside her. I said nothing.
变为:I sat down beside her and I said nothing.
示例2:He asked me a question. I answered him.
变为:He asked me a question and I answered him.

2.从属关系

1)运用各类从句,形成主从符合句,包括:
状语从句
宾语从句
定语从句
主语从句
同位语从句
2)运用非谓语动词类进行从属方式的处理,包括:
动词的ing形式
动词的过去分词形式
动词不定式形式
从属关系示例(以状语从句为例)
示例1:When he asked me a question, I answered him.
示例2:I was so angry that I beat him up!
示例3:If you ask me ‘why’, I will answer ‘because’!
示例4:Since you are not feeling well, just lie down and take a good rest.
示例5:Although I have tried my best, I can’t win her heart.
示例6:Wherever I am, I will be thinking of you.
示例7:I went out very early in the morning so that I could avoid the rush hour traffic.

非谓语动词方式处理示例

示例1:I sat beside her. I felt very nervous.
可变为:Sitting beside her, I felt very nervous.
或者:I sat beside her, feeling very nervous.
示例2:I want to quit smoking. I eat candies.
可变为:To quit smoking, I eat candies.
示例3:A young man was tired of sleeping on the floor. He saved up for years to buy a real bed.
可以变为:Tired of sleeping on the floor, a young man saved up for years to buy a real bed.
示例4:Jimmy was dressed up as Father Christmas. He was accompanied by a guard of honor of six pretty girls. He set off down the main street of the city. He rode a baby elephant. The elephant was called Jumbo.
可以变为:Dressed up as Father Christmas and accompanied by a guard of honor of six pretty girls, Jimmy set off down the main street of the city, riding a baby elephant called Jumbo.

定语从句方式处理

定语从句当然是属于“从属”的行列,所以,是处理为从属方式的手段之一。请看下面的例子:
This is the only book.
I read the book during the holiday.
两句的重合点在the book上面;将第二句中的the book抽出来,放到第一句book后面,其它内容向后甩。这样,我们就会看到the only book后面马上又在重复the book。为了避免重复,我们去掉the book,而换用另外一个词去替换,这个词就是指物的which或that。因为这里的book有only在修饰,所以,最终我们选用that;又因为that在定语从句中作宾语,所以,可以省略。
下面两句的合并遵循同样的原则:
She is the girl.
The girl’s father is my boss.
She is the girl whose father is my boss.

几个句型:
…, but…句型(表转折关系)
…, for…句型(表原因关系)
…, so…句型(表结果关系)
…(,/;/.) however,…句型(表更强烈的转折关系)
…(,/;/.) therefore,…句型(更强烈的结果关系)
…(,/;/.) meanwhile,…句型(表时间关系)
…(,/;/.) consequently,…句型(表结果关系)
…(,/;/.) admittedly,…句型(表让步关系)
这些基本知识构成了:
1)简单句扩展到复杂句
2)复杂句拆分为简单句
由“分到合”,由“合到分”的“基石”。
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